arousal of autonomic nervous system; resistance drops below normal (shock) • resistance – autonomic nervous system returns to normal functioning; resistance increases to reflect adaptation • exhaustion – loses ability to adapt, resistance plummets fight-or-flight response= physiological reactions that help ready us to fight or flee a dangerous situation • eg.dry mouth, sweat, heart beats faster, etc • physiological condition returns to normal after fleeing a dangerous situation • continued state of arousal can lead to negative physical and psychological problems • eg. survivors of concentration camps have poorer health than people of same age • effects of stressors depend on people’s perceptions and emotional react ivity • cognitive appraisal=one’s perception of a stressful situation primary appraisal: evaluate threat • judge seriousness – decide threat is real, make a secondary appraisal secondary appraisal: assess whether we have the resources to cope adequately with threat • extent to which we believe stressor is serious and we do not have necessary resources, determines our level of stress eg. you have an upcoming exam: • primary appraisal – you have a reason to be stressed – you haven’t done any of the readings Downloaded by Ryan Radisa ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3982608
Queen’s University SOS: Students Offering Support Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs • secondary appraisal (1) – you don’t have resources (textbooks, friends) to help you study you will be very stressed! • secondary appraisal (2) – you have a friend who can give you her notes from the textbook, you can attend the PSYC 100 SOS session you will not be as stressed • people show different levels of stress when faced with same stressor • eg. if getting good grades is important to you, you will be more stressed when you fail an exam, than someone else who doesn’t care about his grades type A pattern : high levels of competitiveness and hostility, impatience, an intense disposition, fast movements, rapid speech • associated with increased risk of CHD type B pattern : less competitive and hostile, more patient, easygoing and tolerant • less likely to suffer from CHD stress can impair function of immune system: • immune system protects body from invading bacteria, viruses and other foreign substances • greater likelihood of infectious diseases • aggravate autoimmune diseases • stress increases secretion of glucocorticoids, which directly suppress activity of immune system • increased susceptibility to infectious diseases from stress • people are unhappy – immunoglobin levels are lower • immunoglobin is first defence against infectious micro-organisms • eg. caregivers of family members with Alzheimer’s had weaker immune systems Coping with Stress • stress inoculation training teaches people to develop coping skills that increase their resistance to the negative effects of stress – developed by Meichenbaum – involves realistic appraisals, developing self-control skills, and desensitization –
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- Winter '08