ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The awareness that a problem exists and a decision

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Unformatted text preview: The awareness that a problem exists and a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue. The Optimizing model is a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome. This model outlines six steps that an individual should follow, either implicitly or explicitly, when making a decision. The steps are as follows: recognize the need for a decision; identify the decision criteria, allocate weights to the criteria, develop the alternatives; evaluate the alternatives; and select the best alternative. The assumptions of the optimizing model are the same as those that underlie the concept of rationality, which refers to choices that are consistent and value maximizing. Rational decision making implies that the decision maker can be fully objective and logical. The individual is assumed to have a clear goal, and all of the six steps in the optimizing model are assumed to lead toward the selection of the alternative that will maximize that goal. The Satisficing model is a decision-making model where a decision maker chooses the first solution that is “good enough,” or satisfactory and sufficient. The essence of the satisficing model is that, when faced with complex problems, decision makers respond by reducing the problems to a level at which they can be easily understood. This is because the information processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize. The Implicit favorite model is a decision making model where the decision maker implicitly selects a preferred alternative early in the decision process and biases the evaluation of all other choices. This model is also designed to deal with complex and non-routine decisions. This model argues that individuals solve complex problems by simplifying the process. The decision maker is neither rational nor objective. Early in the decision process, he or she implicitly selects a preferred alternative. Then the rest of the decision process is essentially a decision confirmation exercise, where the decision maker makes sure his or her implicit favorite is the “right” choice. Intuitive decision making is an unconscious process created out of distilled experience. Experts no longer automatically assume that using intuition to make decisions is irrational or ineffective. There is growing recognition that rational analysis has been overemphasized and that, in certain instances, relying on intuition can improve decision making. Intuitive decision making is most likely to be used: when a high level of uncertainty exists; when there is little precedent to draw on; when variables are less scientifically predictable; when facts are limited; and when facts don’t clearly point the way to go....
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The awareness that a problem exists and a decision needs to...

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