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OK! But how did each organism acquire this nature?How did this nature arise in them? The very word seems to imply a process that is natural, that is part of nature. Man’s best guess to date is that they evolved, through a process called natural selection. And why can’t we prove this out any better than has already been done? Because the only ones alive today are the survivors! Those who were selected out have disappeared with only minute traces of them remaining to tease us about who they were, and what they were. Some of these teasingsoccurred as a byproduct of the massive extinctions evidenced in the geological record. Because these evidences are not complete does not argue against an existence and chronology for those long-gone entities. “The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence!”Berlinski goes on to critique another observation, “This is widely seen as offering dramatic confirmation of Darwinian evolution. It is easy to see why. What is ‘innate’ in an organism, so it isclaimed, reflects its genetic endowment, and its genetic endowment reflects the long process in which random variations were sifted by a stern and unforgiving environment.” Exactly! Even though Berlinski doesn’t seem to wholly agree with that postulation, the evidence of massive extinctions in the geologic record seems to indicate that the environment has, at times, proven to be very unforgiving. And the scythe of extinction has swept most brutally among those large successful entities most well adapted to a long stable environment that suddenly changed. The “mighty shall be brought down,” indeed!Then he begins an attempt at refutation of that statement by adding, “If we are born with an ability to acquire a natural language…” Wrong! Language is not a naturally acquired trait. To the opposite of the linguist Noam Chomsky, whom he cites earlier, “Just as children are not taught to walk, they are not taught to speak.” Tell that to any mother or father and they’ll laugh you out of the house! The three most important requirements of survival are a food source, the ability to articulate emotional states, and mobility. A human baby is said to be born with a sucking reflex, but in many cases this reflex remains uncoordinated until the mother moistens the baby’s lips with milk and places the nipple in contact with them. When it tastes food it learns with alacrity the coordination necessary to acquire a purposeful supply. But still, it is largely a learned experience, as any mother will attest as she watches her infant so quickly increase the efficiency of the suckling process. The organic structures are there but the coordination needed to use them is learned. In its first moment of awareness after birth, an infant is surrounded by upright creatures looking down upon it, helplessly lying upon its back. Much later it will learn to crawl, and then walk. And all this time it is surrounded with examples of upright posture, that it first desires to, then seeks to, emulate. All that it has been