The deployment of sexuality is the way that we use

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The "deployment of sexuality" is the way that we use sexuality to join different concepts. It is closely related to the "deployment of alliance," which is the way that alliances have been used to make connections within a society. All societies involve alliances at the family level. Foucault takes as examples the way property or names get passed down through families, or the kinds of protocol that exist between different family relations. An important application of the deployment of alliance has to do with sex: married people can't have extra- marital sex, and people cannot have sex with their family members. These customs generally take the form of laws. Sexuality first appeared when the emphasis on what was taboo changed—thanks to the Christian pastoral and confession—from the relations that exist between people to the kinds of physical sensations that were forbidden. Adultery, for instance, became sinful, not because it violates marital union, but because it involves an illicit form of pleasure. The focus shifted from human relationships to the human body and the kinds of sensations and pleasures that were permissible and impermissible. This shift in focus has allowed discourse on sex to permeate society at a far deeper level. Part Four, Chapter 4 Summary Foucault traces a history of sexuality that is more complex than the one suggested by the repressive hypothesis. He traces its origins back to the Lateran Council of 1215, which first instituted confession as a part of Catholic doctrine. The form of confession intensified and grew steadily in importance between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. The end of the eighteenth century saw a secularization of sex, as pedagogy, medicine, and demography took interest in child sexuality, women's sexuality, and human reproduction respectively. Though all three of these fields inherited a great deal from earlier Christian interests in children, women, and married couples, their interest lay now in physical health and illness rather than in spiritual well- being. The spiritual Christian concept of the "flesh" was reduced to the level of the human organism. The nineteenth century saw the birth of the concept of degeneracy as related to sex. People thought that sexual perversions were passed down through generations. As something that could pervade and infect all of society, sexual perversions were seen as a public danger. This fear led to the medical treatment of
perversion and to eugenics. The repressive hypothesis claims that sex has been repressed in order to maximize economic production. If this were the case, young men and the working classes would have been subject to the most stringent repression. The fact is, however, that the bourgeois were more vigilant regarding their own sexuality than that of the working classes, and were particularly interested in women and children. The concern was not to maximize productivity but to ensure the morality and purity of

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