Doppler Effect source moving towards us blue shift to higher frequencies

Doppler effect source moving towards us blue shift to

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17. Doppler Effect: {source moving towards us: blue shift, to higher frequencies, shorter wavelength} {source moving away from us: red shift, to lower frequencies, longer wavelength} 18. larger amplitude in the radial velocity, larger planet mass shorter period, closer to the star 19. noise: want the noise to be weaker than the signal 20. transit method: measuring the amount of dimming tell us size of the planets, measuring the orbital period gives the planet’s distance fro the star from Kepler’s laws(third law, a3=p2, a in AU, p in years, shorter period, smaller a) 21. selection effect: big planets make big wobble, easier to detect. Close planets make fast wobbles, less time to observe a full orbital period 22. hot jupiters: Jupiter-sized planets less than 0.1 AU super-earth: planet with mass between 2 and 10 times the mass of the earth kepler 11 system: sun-like star, have six planets orbit 23. sun: shine because hot, hot gas surface, major composed by H and He {radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona} {photosphere: visible light is emitted, tem=5800k, highly opaque} {chromsphere } {spicules: jets of rising gas} {corona: only visible during total solar eclipse, tem = a million k}generate energy via nuclear fusion of H into He, fusion only occurs in the core, {neutrino :hard to detect} {hydrostatic equilibrium: gravity pushing in and gas pressure pushing out} {thermal equilibrium: energy generated in core, energy radiated from surface} 24. solar wind: charged particles flow away, largely from sparse regions of the corona called coronal holes sun’s activity: {sunspots, cooler region}, {prominences, magnetic loops that can extend up into sun’s corona}, {solar flares, occur when intense magnetic fields in sunspot regions release energy}, {coronal mass ejections, huge bubbles of gas ejected from sun}
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