Relatively constant images on our retina change in

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relatively constant images on our retina change in size with variation in distance Perception of Depth, Distance and Movement - Depth and Distance Perception o The retina receives information in only 2 dimensions (length and width) o The brain translates these cues into 3-dimensional perceptions (via monocular cues and binocular cues) o Monocular Depth Cues Judging relative distances of objects There are several cues: Light and shadow Linear perspective: refers to the perception that parallel lines converge or angle toward one another as they recede into the distance Interposition: objects closer to us may cut off part of our view or more distant objects. This is another cue for distance and depth Height in horizontal plane: higher objects are farther Texture: texture is finer any distance increases Clarity: objects nearby are more clearly seen Relative Size Motion parallax: when we move, nearby object appear to be moving faster in the opposite direction o Binocular Disparity Each eye sees a slightly different image Within the brain, the visual input from the 2 eyes is analyzed by feature detectors that are attuned to depth Convergence: produced by feedback from the muscles that turn your eyes inward to view a near object - Perception of Movement o The primary cue for perceiving motion is the movement of the stimulus across the retina o Another movement cue is the relative movement of an object against a structured background
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o Stroboscopic movement: illusory movement produces when a light is flashed a millisecond after another in the dark and it appears the the light has simply moved Illusions: False Perceptual Hypotheses - Illusions: compelling but incorrect perceptions o Erroneous perceptual hypotheses about the nature of the stimulus o Most visual illusions can be attributed to perceptual constancies that ordinarily help us to perceive more accurately o Distance cues can be manipulated to create other size illusions o The study of perceptual constancies shows that our perceptual hypotheses are strongly influenced by the context, or surroundings, in which the stimulus occurs Experience, Critical Periods and Perceptual Development - Development of sensory and perceptual systems results from the interplay of biological and experiental factors. - Genes program biological development, but this development is also influenced by environmental experiences - Cross-Cultural Research on Perception o Humans normally come into the world with the same perceptual abilities o From that point, the culture one grows up in helps determine the kinds of perceptual learning experiences people have o Cultural learning affects perceptions in other modalities as well Our perceptions of taste, odours, and textures are strongly influenced by our cultural experiences - Restored Sensory Capacity o No amount of subsequent experience can make up for someone’s lack of visual experience during the critical period of childhood
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  • Spring '11
  • Fazakas-Dehoog
  • Psychology, prosopagnosia

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