EnergyNeutralHome.pdf

The design of a suitable roof area with uninterrupted

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The design of a suitable roof area with uninterrupted solar access is essential. See Renewable energy design guidelines for orientation, tilt or elevation and the roof area required for your system. Where uninterrupted solar access is not available on the rooftop, freestanding frames in a sunny yard or on a carport roof may be a viable alternative. Orientation of PV arrays to the west reduces output by 10–15% but can often more than offset any loss of net export return by better matching peak demand without the need for on-site storage systems. Tracking systems can increase output by as much as 15% but are expensive, subject to wind damage and require maintenance. Monitoring Monitor your consumption through energy bills and smart metering to identify any areas where further efficiencies can be gained. In particular, monitor changes in energy consumption after replacement of major appliances with more efficient ones. When all cost effective efficiencies have been locked in, monitoring will determine whether you have achieved carbon zero or positive status based on actual rather than predicted demand. This will inform your decisions about whether to expand your existing system and by how much. Future expansion The addition or expansion of renewable energy generation systems, such as solar PV, can be a relatively simple but expensive process. It is therefore usually the last step in achieving carbon zero or positive status because thermal performance and appliance efficiency deliver more cost effective carbon reductions and are more expensive to add after construction or renovation. Renewable energy generation is usually the last step in achieving carbon zero or positive status, because thermal performance and appliance efficiency can deliver more cost effective carbon reductions and are more expensive to add after construction or renovation. Carbon zero, carbon positive
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453 Housing of the future Unregulated growth in rooftop generation capacity is proving increasingly problematic for supply authorities. Rooftop PV generation is overloading the grid on sunny days in some areas — a problem likely to increase as the number and size of rooftop systems increases. These systems can also cause grid fluctuations as clouds pass over areas with high concentrations of rooftop PV. Automated activation of appliances and on-site or community level electricity storage systems are needed to overcome this problem. These systems include: stand-alone battery systems or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging automated switching on of heating and cooling systems that can store warmth or ‘coolth’ in thermal mass to limit or eliminate peak demand. (see Batteries and inverters ; Thermal mass ; Heating and cooling ; Home automation ; Smart meters, in-home displays and smart appliances ) Source: Chris Dunstan (ISF) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
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