1 pigeons starlings goldfish 2 people human cones red

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1. Pigeons, Starlings, Goldfish 2. People?
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Human    cones Red ~ 630-650 nm Orange~ 600-620 nm 565 nm Yellow~ 560-580 nm Green ~ 500-550 nm 530 nm Blue ~ 450-480 nm Indigo & 430 nm  Violet ~ 425ish nm receptors  and  caveats
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receptors not evenly spaced two groups, S and M&L
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receptors
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stickleback retina
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Short     Medium          Long Mammals  (in general)   420           550 Prosimians   440         ~550 Old World Monkeys   430          530        565 New World Monkeys   430          535         550      565 males   430  +          one of three females   430  +          two of three Humans   later receptors
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4 -color theory RYGB - Hering evidence: introspection bluish-green   reddish-yellow greenish-red?  bluish-yellow? afterimages ganglion cells
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afterimages
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afterimages
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ganglion cells “red”-”green” “yellow”-”blue” “white”-”black” luminance  channel chromatic  channel all parvo
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ganglion cells all parvo 430 530 565
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pure hues vs. natural colors
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natural colors
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color blindness & color weakness metamers & neutral points costs (& benefits) of color-blind males
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Short     Medium          Long Mammals  (in general)   420          550 Prosimians   440        ~550 Old World Monkeys   430          530       565 New World Monkeys   430            535      550      565 males   430  +          one of three females   430  +          two of three Humans   430          530       565              M protanopic   430          530              M deuteranopic   430       565              M protoanomalous   430          530        550              M deuteroanomalous   430          550     565 F protoanomalous carrier   430          530        550      565   or deuteroanomalous carrier “color blind” color weak
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M--> <--L distributions for  noncanonical  receptors the “-anomalies”
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