Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

Non polar solutes and non polar solvents eg iodine

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Non-polar solutes and non-polar solvents (e.g. iodine and ether) Iodine molecules are non-polar, and the forces between the molecules are weak van der Waals forces. There are also weak van der Waals forces between ether molecules. Be- cause the intermolecular forces in both the solute and the solvent are similar, it is easy for these to be broken in the solute, allowing the solute to move into the spaces between the molecules of the solvent. The solute dissolves in the solvent. Polar solutes and polar solvents (e.g. salt and water) There are strong electrostatic forces between the ions of a salt such as sodium chloride. There are also strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Because the strength of the intermolecular forces in the solute and solvent are similar, the solute will dissolve in the solvent. 102
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CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11 6.3 6.3 Solubility You may have noticed sometimes that, if you try to dissolve salt (or some other solute) in a small amount of water, it will initially dissolve, but then appears not to be able to dissolve any further when you keep adding more solute to the solvent. This is called the solubility of the solution. Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a solvent under certain conditions. Definition: Solubility Solubility is the ability of a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. If a substance has a high solubility, it means that lots of the solute is able to dissolve in the solvent. So what factors affect solubility? Below are some of the factors that affect solubility: the quantity of solute and solvent in the solution the temperature of the solution other compounds in the solvent affect solubility because they take up some of the spaces between molecules of the solvent, that could otherwise be taken by the solute itself the strength of the forces between particles of the solute, and the strength of forces between particles of the solvent Activity :: Experiment : Factors affecting solubility Aim: To determine the effect of temperature on solubility Method: 1. Measure 100cm 3 of water into a beaker 2. Measure 100 g of salt and place into another beaker 3. Slowly pour the salt into the beaker with the water, stirring it as you add. Keep adding salt until you notice that the salt is not dissolving anymore. 4. Record the amount of salt that has been added to the water and the tempera- ture of the solution. 5. Now increase the temperature of the water by heating it over a bunsen burner. 6. Repeat the steps above so that you obtain the solubility limit of salt at this higher temperature. You will need to start again with new salt and water! 7. Continue to increase the temperature as many times as possible and record your results.
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