research-report-96-coming-clean-contractual-and-procurement-practices.doc

Table 32 patterns of trade union density among uk

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Table 3.2 Patterns of trade union density among UK employees in 2012 Male Female Full-time Part-time All employees 23.4 28.7 27.8 21.3 Permanent 24.3 29.5 28.5 22.2 Temporary 10.4 18.3 14.3 14.9 Weekly pay <250 9.6 15.8 10.9 15.3 250-499 22.4 32.3 24.6 44.6 500-999 33.0 49.8 39.3 38.0 1000+ 18.3 29.9 20.9 n.a. Source: authors’ table from BIS (2013b: Table 3.3). Employees with temporary employment status have significantly lower union representation than permanent employees, especially among men for whom the different densities are 10.4% and 24.3%, respectively (2012 data, Table 3.2). But perhaps the most worrying feature of the composition of union members is the dramatically low representation among the lowest paid, precisely those who arguably need collective representation the most: less than one in ten male employees and around one in six female employees earning below £250 per week were union members in 2012. It is notable, however, that union density is higher among low paid part-timers than among low-paid full-timers. 6 Labour Force Survey data. 21
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COMING CLEAN: CONTRACTUAL AND PROCUREMENT PRACTICES 4. Overview of the commercial cleaning sector 4.1 Key business and employment characteristics Characteristics of the industry The UK cleaning sector covers all forms of contract cleaning and encompasses the cleaning of buildings, vehicles, food premises, industrial premises, windows and facades, highways and land, and specialised cleaning (Asset Skills, 2013a). While our investigation has focused on the commercial cleaning sector, the available data encompasses both commercial and domestic cleaning. In 2013, the Office for National Statistics estimated the commercial and domestic cleaning sector included 13,385 enterprises, a workforce of 446,000 and an £8.1billion annual turnover. 7 The number of enterprises has increased during the recovery from the recession as a result of rising numbers of small and micro-sized companies. Although three in four enterprises had nine employees or less in 2013, most of the cleaning workforce, nearly two thirds, is employed in the 1.5% with 250 employees or more. The large firms include a growing presence of multinational services firms which have expanded on the back of large outsourcing contracts and tend to cover a bundle of facility management services including catering and building maintenance, for example, as well as cleaning. Examples of these global firms include Compass Group, Mitie, Rentokil Initial, Sodexo and ISS, among others. Characteristics of the workforce Labour Force Survey data suggest around four fifths (79%) of the cleaning workforce is female and almost four fifths work part-time (78%) (Figure 4.1). This feminised, part-time workforce is very different from the average for the UK workforce where women account for 47% of employment and part-time jobs for 27%. There is also a relatively large presence of ethnic minority workers and migrant workers in the cleaning sector. The sector employs a higher proportion of non-white employees than across all sectors in the UK. This relatively large presence is prevalent in England, where the non-white workforce in the industry stands at 16%, and in particular London where their share of employment is 44%. On the other hand, this
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