Chapter 10 notes part 3 (1)

They arise from the linear combination of atomic

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They arise from the linear combination of atomic orbitals. Adding together two atomic orbitals will produce two molecular orbitals. Adding together four A.O.’s will produce four M.O.‘s, etc. Bonding orbitals : are molecular orbitals that are concentrated in regions between nuclei.
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Antibonding orbitals : are molecular orbitals having zero values in the region between nuclei. o Having two electrons in a B.O. provides the best arrangement for bonding. The two electrons being shared are situated between the two atoms in the bond. This is a stable arrangement. o Having two electrons in an A.O. is the worst arrangement for bonding. The two electrons can be considered as isolated around each individual atom, and orbital overlap is at a minimum. In some cases, e-‘s in a filled A.O. are lone pair electrons. Let’s examine two molecules H 2 and He 2 H 2 ** Having two electrons placed in a bonding orbital, while the anti-bonding orbital is empty creates a VERY stable arrangement for bonding! Notice that the new bonding M.O. formed is LOWER in E than each individual atomic orbital from H. This is my bond making is an exothermic process. Now let’s attempt to make He 2 ** in this case, both the bonding AND the antibonding M.O.’s are filled. Since He does not have any lone pairs, this is an UNSTABLE arrangment and therefore one He atom cannot form a bond to another He atom.
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Using M.O. theory and only the 2s (outer shell) electrons, explain why Li 2 is stable and Be 2 is not. Factors that determine orbital overlap (and hence the strength of a covalent bond) 1. The E difference between the two orbitals that are interacting 2. The magnitude of that overlap. o For the interaction to be strong, the energies of the two orbitals must be approximately equal and the overlap must be large.
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