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Answer odds ratio is 12 with a 95 confidence the

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Answer: Odds ratio is 1.2 with a 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5. The confidence interval includes the null value (=1), hence socioeconomic status and occurrence of obesity are not associated. The association between socioeconomic status and occurrence of obesity is not significant. 3. A relative risk of 3.0 is reported for the association between consumption of red meat and the occurrence of colon cancer. The p-value of the association is 0.15. Answer: Relative risk of 3.0 (p-value 0.15) shows that Intake of red meats was significantly not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. 4. An odds ratio of 7 (95% confidence interval: 3.0 – 11.4) is found for the association of smoking and lung cancer. Answer:
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Odds ratio is 7 with a 95% confidence interval: 3.0-11.4. The confidence interval does not includes the null value (=1), hence smoking and lung cancer are associated. The association between smoking and lung cancer is significant. The relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted in a case- control study with 700 cases and 425 controls. Using the results below, calculate the crude odds ratio and explain what the ratio means: Heavy Smoking—Cases: 450; Controls: 200 Not Heavy Smoking—Cases: 250; Controls: 225 Answer: Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer Heavy Smoking 450 200 No heavy smoking 250 225 Crude Odds ratio = (A*D) / (B*C) = (450*225)/ (200*250) = 2.025 Hence the odd of developing lung cancer with heavy smoking are 2.025 times greater than no heavy smoking. A case-control study looked at the association of alcohol use with the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD). There were 300 participants in the study (150 cases and 150
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