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RETENTION THEORY TIMELINEeducation, such as the culmination of the Civil Rights Movement and the vestiges of the VietnamWar. Retention itself, becoming increasingly important with each passing and presented theory, study, and model, as it moved the US towards more successful students and helped decrease inequalities.1974 Kamens Study of Organizational BehaviorDavid Kamens came up with the theory to support “…how institutions with greater size and complexity, coupled with a superior capacity to place graduates in prestigious social and occupational roles, have lower rates of attrition than do other types of postsecondary institutions”(Berger, 2012, p. 25). The concern is that institutions may become so big they lack the social-emotional supports to support student attrition whereas a smaller school may support this through student affairs and various services that have greater influence and connection. During a time with conflicts of trust such as the Watergate Scandal, oil, and energy crisis, and much more, developing mentorship and loyalty to an institution by supporting persistence was key to dealing with retention rates (Seidman, 2005, p. 19).1975 Tinto’s Interactional ModelAfter Kamens’ study, there is the most well-known theory from Vincent Tinto which covers characteristics and initial interest and commitment to higher education concerning retention (Berger, 2012, p. 24). If students commit to an institution and feel fully immersed and responsible for their choice of the institution, they are then more likely to complete their programs and graduate which would affect retention rates. Tinto viewed departure as a longitudinal process and that social integration with the institution both socially and 5
RETENTION THEORY TIMELINEacademically was key to building a sense of grit in students (Seidman, 2005 p. 67). In the schemata of Tinto’s model, without a sense of belonging to an institution, students’ retention would fall.1980 Bean’s Student Attrition FrameworkJohn Bean was able to correlate education and business. His model assesses how organizational attributes and reward structures affect student satisfaction and persistence (Berger,2012, p.28). Incentives, routines, and structures contribute to feelings of acceptance and success, and help to influence students to work harder towards their education. This model is even being further explored within secondary schools before higher education in an attempt to revamp education as a whole to be more people-focused and more adept at community building. During the period, there were historic movements for more consideration of worker’s rights. 1999 Astin’s Student Involvement TheoryWith an understanding of the complexities of higher education, Alexander Astin brought forth his theory to streamline one main proponent of retention: involvement. He suggested that,