13 14 this first step is a typical chemical

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13 , 14 This first step is a typical chemical transformation aiming at the Table 1: Chemical name, empirical formula, structure, and common abbreviation of some of the most commonly used precursors for the preparation of coatings by sol–gel method Chemical name Empirical formula Structure Abbreviation Methyltrimethoxysilane C 4 H 12 O 3 Si H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O MTMS Tetramethylorthosilicate C 4 H 12 O 4 Si CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C O O O O Si TMOS Vinyltrimethoxysilane C 5 H 12 O 3 Si H 3 C H 2 C O O Si O CH 3 CH 3 VTMS J. Coat. Technol. Res.
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Table 1: Continued Chemical name Empirical formula Structure Abbreviation 3,3,3-Trifluoropropyltrimethoxysilane C 6 H 13 F 3 O 3 Si CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O F F F TFPTMOS Diethoxydimethylsilane C 6 H 16 O 2 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O Si DEDMS Triethoxysilane C 6 H 16 O 3 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O H TEOS C -Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane C 6 H 16 O 3 SSi H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O HS MPTMS 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane C 6 H 17 NO 3 Si H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 NH 2 O O Si O APTMS Methyltriethoxysilane C 7 H 18 O 3 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O MTES Ethyltriacetoxysilane C 8 H 14 O 6 Si H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O O O O ETAS Vinyltriethoxysilane C 8 H 18 O 3 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 O O O Si VTES Tetraethoxysilane C 8 H 20 O 4 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O TEOS J. Coat. Technol. Res.
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Table 1: Continued Chemical name Empirical formula Structure Abbreviation N -(2-Aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane C 8 H 22 N 2 O 3 Si H 3 C CH 3 NH 2 H 3 C O O Si O N H AEAPS Bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane C 8 H 22 O 6 Si 2 H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O O O Si O Si O BTMSE Phenyltrimethoxysilane C 9 H 14 O 3 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O PTMS 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane C 9 H 20 O 5 Si CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C O O Si O O O GPTMS 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane C 9 H 23 NO 3 Si H 3 C H 3 C NH 2 CH 3 O O Si O APTES C -Methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane C 10 H 20 O 5 Si H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O O O Si O MAPTS 2-(3,4-Epoxycyclohexyl)–ethyltrimethoxysilane C 11 H 22 O 4 Si H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 O O Si O O ECHETS Titanium(IV) tetra-1-propoxide C 12 H 28 O 4 Ti H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 O O O Ti O TIPT J. Coat. Technol. Res.
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formation of a sol of colloidal particles or a solution of oligomers (small polymers). As sol is a fluid it can be cast in a mold, or be applied on the substrates using various shaping techniques 8 and can be stored for a certain time before further casting. After this process, a gel is formed and to achieve gelation, the chemical transformations in a sol must be allowed to proceed until a rigid and interconnected network forms, only limited by the walls of the container. 11 Another important step in the sol–gel art is the drying, which is a very critical one. When drying occurs under normal conditions, it usually results in a contraction of the gelled network. The resulting dry gel, commonly referred as xerogel , can be reduced in volume between five and ten times when compared with the initial wet gel.
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