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Philosophy Midterm Review Sheet

Socrates remarks that meno makes many out of one like

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inherent to virtues which makes them thus. Socrates remarks that Meno makes many out of one, like somebody who breaks a plate (77a). 2) Meno proposes that virtue is the desire for good things and the power to get them. Socrates Response - Socrates points out that this raises a second problem- many people do not recognize evil (77d,e). The discussion then turns to how to account for the fact that so many people are mistaken about good and evil, and take one for the other. Socrates asks Meno to consider whether good things must be acquired virtuously in order to be really good (78b). Socrates leads onto the question of whether virtue is one thing or many. 2. Briefly summarize the purpose of Socrates’ interrogation of the slaveboy, and explain how it illustrates the epistemological theory of “ recollection .” -He gets the slave to agree that this is twice the size of the original square and says that he has "spontaneously recovered" knowledge he knew from a past life (85d) without having been taught. Meno tells Socrates that he thinks that Socrates is correct in his theory of recollection, to which Socrates replies, “I think I am. I shouldn’t like to take my oath on the whole story, but one thing I am ready to fight for as long as I can, in word and act—that is, that we shall be better, braver, and more active men if we believe it right to look for what we don’t know...” -Must make conscience of what you do not know, in order to gain knowledge. All learning is recollection, not a “Blank Slate.” We are born with all the concepts of the world, we just need to bring them to light. Slaveboy was never taught geometry, yet eventually he comes up with the right answers for Socrates. 3. What do Meno and Socrates finally conclude about virtue ? Socrates and Meno return to the subject of whether Virtue can be taught. He points out the similarities and differences between "true beliefs" and "knowledge". He claims that whilst "true beliefs" may be as useful to us as knowledge, they often fail to "stay in their place" and must be "tethered" by anamnesis . This distinction between "true beliefs" and "knowledge" forms the basis of the philosophical definition of knowledge as "justified true belief ". "To sum up our enquiry," Socrates concludes, "the result seems to be, if we are at all right in our view, that virtue is neither natural nor acquired, but an instinct given by God to the virtuous." Whereas in the Protagoras knowledge is uncompromisingly this-wordly, in the Meno the theory of recollection points to a link between knowledge and eternal truths. Virtue is a gift of the Gods. Phaedo 1. Plato puts forth a dualistic account of the soul’s relationship to the body. Briefly explain this notion of soul-body “ dualism ” and Socrates’ version of it. Dualism- No central connection between body and soul.
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