O bjective 6 o bjective 6 o bjective 6 the salt

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and liquids as well as solids. O BJECTIVE 6 O BJECTIVE 6 O BJECTIVE 6 The Salt-Encrusted Shore of The Dead Sea Salt (sodium chloride) is an ionic compound. Water is molecular.
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76 Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds Summary of Covalent and Ionic Bond Formation When atoms of different elements form chemical bonds, the electrons in the bonds can shift from one bonding atom to another. The atom that attracts electrons more strongly will acquire a negative charge, and the other atom will acquire a positive charge. The more the atoms differ in their electron‑attracting ability, the more the electron cloud shifts from one atom toward another. If there is a large enough difference in electron‑attracting ability, one, two, or three electrons can be viewed as shifting completely from one atom to another. The atoms become positive and negative ions, and the attraction between them is called an ionic bond. If the electron transfer is significant but not enough to form ions, the atoms acquire partial positive and partial negative charges. The bond in this situation is called a polar covalent bond. If there is no shift of electrons or if the shift is negligible, no significant charges will form, and the bond will be a nonpolar covalent bond. It might help, when thinking about these different kinds of bonds, to compare them to a game of tug‑of‑war between two people. The people are like the atoms with a chemical bond between them, and the rope is like the electrons in the bond. If the two people tugging have the same (or about the same) strength, the rope will not move (or not move much). This leads to a situation that is like the nonpolar covalent bond. If one person is stronger than the other person, the rope will shift toward that person, the way the electrons in a polar covalent bond shift toward the atom that attracts them more. If one person can pull a lot harder than the other person can, the stronger person pulls the rope right out of the hands of the weaker one. This is similar to the formation of ions and ionic bonds, when a nonmetallic atom pulls one or more electrons away from a metallic atom. Figure 3.5 Ionic Bond Formation O BJECTIVE 6 O BJECTIVE 7 + Chlorine gas, Cl 2 Sodium metal, Na Sodium atom, Na metallic element Each Na atom loses one electron and gets smaller Each Cl atom gains one electron and gets larger Sodium ion, Na + metallic cation Chlorine ion, Cl nonmetallic anion Ionic bond, an attraction between a cation and an anion e Chlorine atom, Cl nonmetallic element
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3.2 Compounds and Chemical Bonds 77 O BJECTIVE 8 O BJECTIVE 7 Figure 3.6 summarizes the general differences between nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds. Figure 3.6 Covalent and Ionic Bonds Predicting Bond Type The simplest way to predict whether a bond will be ionic or covalent is to apply the following rules.
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  • Fall '06
  • Mark
  • Atom, atoms, Chemical bond

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