A New Industrial Age447Born in Scotland to penniless parents, Andrew Carnegiecame to this country in 1848, at age 12. Six years later, heworked his way up to become private secretary to the localsuperintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad. One morning,Carnegie single-handedly relayed messages that unsnarled atangle of freight and passenger trains. His boss, Thomas A.Scott, rewarded Carnegie by giving him a chance to buy stock.Carnegie’s mother mortgaged the family home to make thepurchase possible. Soon Carnegie received his first dividend.A PERSONALVOICEANDREW CARNEGIE“One morning a white envelope was lying upon my desk, addressed ina big John Hancock hand, to ‘Andrew Carnegie, Esquire.’ . . . All it containedwas a check for ten dollars upon the Gold Exchange Bank of New York. I shallremember that check as long as I live. . . . It gave me the first penny of revenuefrom capital—something that I had not worked for with the sweat of my brow.‘Eureka!’ I cried. ‘Here’s the goose that lays the golden eggs.’”—Autobiography of Andrew CarnegieAndrew Carnegie was one of the first industrial moguls to make his own for-tune. His rise from rags to riches, along with his passion for supporting charities,made him a model of the American success story.Carnegie’s InnovationsBy 1865, Carnegie was so busy managing the money he had earned in dividendsthat he happily left his job at the Pennsylvania Railroad. He entered the steel busi-ness in 1873 after touring a British steel mill and witnessing the awesome spectacle of the Bessemer process in action. By 1899, the Carnegie Steel CompanyTerms & NamesTerms & NamesMAIN IDEAMAIN IDEA•Andrew Carnegie•vertical andhorizontalintegration•Social Darwinism•John D.Rockefeller•Sherman AntitrustAct•Samuel Gompers •AmericanFederation ofLabor (AFL)•Eugene V. Debs•Industrial Workersof the World (IWW)•Mary Harris JonesThe expansion of industryresulted in the growth of bigbusiness and promptedlaborers to form unions tobetter their lives.