Provided early evidence that the techniques and methods of psychology could be used to answer the problems of industry Between the Wars: Birth of the Human Relations Movement Industrial psychology well established and focused on issues related to selection, training, and job analysis There was not much interest in issues related to employee morale, group processes, or job attitudes The conduct of the highly influential Hawthorne studies led industrial psychologists to expand their scope of inquiry to include these new topics Hawthorne studies Series of studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company Had financial interest in demonstrating the value of their lamps that produced more light per watt of electricity than did those of their competitors Used their own workplace as a lab Adopted the techniques of applied psychologists to study the effects of varying illumination levels on worker productivity Researchers found that productivity improved regardless of change in working conditions When researchers increased the level of illumination, productivity went up When they decreased the level of illumination, productivity also went up Hawthorne effect: suggests that any intervention might have the desired effect Simply by paying more attention to the workers, the researchers inadvertently produced an increased productivity The researchers were led to think about other aspects of the workplace – including the dynamics of small groups, job attitudes, and even the study of job-related stress and well- being Became the basis of organizational psychology World War II Americans formed an Emergency Committee in Psychology as part of their preparation for war Intent of the committee was to link the military system with organized psychology Psychologists developed selection instruments to screen and place recruits Army General Classification Test Psychologists also became involved in the selection for specialized roles
John Flanangan The originator of the critical incident technique The assessment center , a well-established method of selection, was originally developed as a technique for selecting saboteurs and spies Psychologists became involved in a host of activities expanding beyond selection The design of training and training techniques, as well as the optimal design of workplaces and equipment Samuel Stouffer Published The American Soldier Job satisfaction, motivation, perceived justice, and group cohesion His work is still considered an influential landmark His work on post-traumatic stress reactions continues to be cited in the more recent literature on post-traumatic stress Post World War II Many people returned to civilian jobs Booming economy, with its demands for labor, meant that advances made in personnel selection and other areas of enquiry such as work motivation and leadership became firmly entrenched in the normal operation of organizations
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- Summer '19