Compliance was high with both adults over time the

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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
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Chapter Q / Exercise 6
Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Miltenberger
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Compliance was high with both adults. Over time, the teacher-delivered instructions increased as parent- delivered instructions decreased. Compliance contin- ued at high levels. By the end of treatment, the parent-delivered instructions were entirely eliminated and compliance continued to be exhibited at high levels. These results suggested that stimulus control over compliance was successfully transferred from the parent to the teacher. Prompt Procedures Prompts have been defined by Cooper et al. (2007) as antecedent stimuli that occasion specific responses and are supplemental to a behavioral treatment. There are at least two broad categories of prompts: response prompts and physical prompts. Response prompts such as physical guidance target behavior. Stimulus prompts target the conditions that exist prior to the occurrence of a target behavior. Stimulus prompts are often used as a means to occasion behavior. Once responding is more frequent and reliable in the pres- ence of naturally occurring stimuli, these auxiliary stimuli can be removed. DeQuinzio, Townsend, Sturmey, and Poulson (2007) used prompting as part of a treatment plan for teaching three young children with autism to imitate facial models. Prior to treatment, all of the children did not accurately imitate varying facial expressions (e.g., they cried when others smiled at them or laughed when others cried). Smile , frown , surprise , and anger were the facial expressions targeted for imitation in this study. During baseline, the experimenter modeled one of the facial expressions. During imitation training, a combination of prompting, modeling, differential rein- forcement, and error correction procedures was utilized. Specific to this section of the chapter, prompting consisted of a least-to-most hierarchy in which the experimenter started by providing a verbal statement (“do this”) if the participant had not imitated a facial model within 5 s of its presentation. If the participant still did not imitate the facial model, the experimenter provided another verbal statement and also modeled two facial motor movements that were topographically related to the target response. If the child still did not imitate the motor movements, the experimenter then manually prompted the correct response (e.g., used two fingers to turn the corners of the participant’s mouth up). If the child did not imitate the motor movement following this manual prompt, the experimenter next combined the manual prompt with a verbal statement (e.g., “that’s smiling”). All children consistently displayed high rates of imitation of some of the facial models in training relative to baseline. Prompts have also been used to increase the social initiations of children with autism. Taylor and Levin (1998) used a tactile prompting device (vibrating pager) to teach a student with autism to initiate verbal interactions toward an adult during play activities.
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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
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Chapter Q / Exercise 6
Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Miltenberger
Expert Verified
28 J.E. Ringdahl et al.

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