1978 American Board of Forensic Psychology 1981 APA Division 41 established

1978 american board of forensic psychology 1981 apa

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1978 American Board of Forensic Psychology 1981 APA Division 41 established 1985 CPA Criminal Justice Section 1991 Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (see handout) 1995 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 2001 APA recognizes forensic psychology as a specialty Growth in Published Research Phenomenal growth since 1980’s Movement from descriptive to correlational research designs Forensic Psychology Publications from 1973 to 1983 87 articles cited only 13 (15%) were empirical 2003 PsycInfo 1237 hits for Forensic Psychology 2009 PsycInfo 2510 hits for Forensic Psychology 2019 PsycInfo 32,540 hits for Forensic Psychology - Discipline has grown enormously and very fast Why the resurgence? Renewed interest in applied social issues Response to criticism about its relevance Increased use of psychologist in jury selection Lots of interest in applied research. Everything has to be tied to an outcome, every time money is granted, asked to evaluate… effective results. 1970’s Forensic Psychology comes of age! PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME Theories have to match the treatment; theoretical perspectives drive the type of treatment you offer individuals who are engaging in criminal behaviour.
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Theories of crime are explanations for criminal behavior. Important to understand these theories from a broad perspective. 1. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES OF CRIME Freud lacked interest in criminals Freud (1906) appealed to Austrian Judges to have psychologists involved in the legal system John Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation (1944). Lack of attachment results in children developing antisocial patterns. (monkey study, soft teddy bear and wire teddy bear) Pros: Influenced research into the effects of early childhood experiences. Cons: Fail to be supported scientifically; therapies are ineffective and time consuming 2. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES OF CRIME Bandura: Behaviors are acquired via observation, association, listening. Behaviors must be reinforced by rewards and punishments to be sustained (e.g., Bobo doll experiment, big blow up dolls, adult instructed to beat up doll, young kid would watch, either replicate behavior or not, aggression) Males watching males be aggressive most effect on imitation. Pros: Stresses the importance of normal processes rather than pathology. Cons: Weak ability to explain; lack of evidence to support punishment causes deterrence, predictability is weak 3. PERSONALITY THEORIES OF CRIME Eysenck’s (FATHER OF PERSONALITY THEORIES) biological, psychological and social factors. People commit crimes because of their personality make-up created through conditioned conscience and as well their temperament (cortical arousal) Below we will see a diagram displaying the cycle of condition conscious. 
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Personality Factors Scale… Extraversion (Reflects need for stimulation) Neuroticism (Reflects emotionally) Sociable Anxious Irresponsible Depressed Dominant Guilt feelings No Reflection Low self-esteem Sensation-seeker Tense Impulsive Moody Risk-taking Hypochondriac Expressive Low autonomy Active Obsessive
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Most individuals fall in the middle of the diagram Individuals who engage in criminal behaviour fall in N-E Criminal Behavior= high extraversion and neuroticism Cortical arousal: Individuals who are extraverts are low in cortical arousal, hormone in your body that is fight or flight, they seek excitement, risk-takers Individuals who are introverts already have high levels of cortical arousal, therefore they keep to themselves and are calm Pros: Theory links together several levels of theories. Biology, psychology, sociology Cons: Based on flawed data, static nature of personality/personality is unchangeable, no explanation for how crime emerges or why some with that personality do not commit crime.
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