-John D. Rockefellar: applied protestant work ethic to business and personal life -Rev. Russell Conwell: everyone had a duty to be rich -Andrew Carnegie: wealthy had to be beneficiaries (dist. 350 mill to support libraries, ect) How did Social Darwinism impact American culture beyond economic growth? Racial intolerance Define philanthropy. “projects of civil philanthropy for the benefit of society” 5. Technology and Innovations, pp 325-326 Key Concepts & Main Notes Analysis
Ideas Large-scale production — accompanied by massive technological change, expanding international communication networks, and pro- growth government policies — fueled the development of a “ Gilded Age ” marked by an emphasis on consumption, marketing, and business consolidation. …technological innovations and redesigned financial and management structures such as monopolies sought to maximize the exploitation of natural resources and a growing labor force. The emergence of an industrial culture in the United States led to both greater opportunities for, and restrictions on, immigrants, minorities, and women . Technology and Innovations … -new inventions: greater workplace productivity and mass produced home goods Inventions… -Samuel F. B. Morse: telegraph (1844, N. States during war) -Cyrus W. Field: transatlantic cable (1866, after war) a. communication evolution: internationalized markets and prices for basic commodities; put small producers at mercy of int’l forces -Alexander Grahman: telephone (1876) -Cash register (1879) -Calculating machine (1887) -Adding machine (1888) -Kodak camera (1888 by George Estman) -Fountainhead pen (1884 by Lewis e. Waterman) -Razor blade (1895 by King Gillette) -Typewriter (1867) Edison and Westinghouse… -Edison: young telegraph worker (machine for recording votes, first patent in 1869) -World’s first modern research lab was his in Menlo Park, NJ. (worked on projects as a team, 1,000s of patents: phonograph, lamp (lightbulb), ect) - George Westinghouse: 400 + patents (airbrakes for railroads in 18869 and transformer for high voltage currents (1885) Marketing Consumer Goods… -R.H. Macy in NY and Marshall Field in Chicago made large apartment store -Frank Wool worth: Five and Ten cent store brought nationwide -Sears, Roebuck and Montgomery Ward used rail systems to ship, “wish book” = catalogs -Rail carts (refrigerated) allowed the shipping of food (changed eating habits of Amers) -Shopping became a favorite pastime) In the earlier Market Revolution (or the “First Industrial Revolution” in the U.S.), innovations such as John Deere’s Steel Plow, Cyrus McCormick’s Mechanical Reaper, Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts, Robert Fulton’s steamboat, and many other innovations impacted the nation. Compare and Contrast the impact of post Civil War innovation to that of the pre- Civil War market revolution.