•King Jaja of Opobo (1821–1891) started off a slave and ended up founding the port of Opobo with the palm oil trade.•William Lewis, a freed Yoruba slave, went back to Africa in 1828 and became a successful merchant.Sent his son Samuel to study in EnglandSamuel became an important leader in Sierra Leone.New Trade With Africa
Rise of free labor in Atlantic world and dwindling foreign slave trade actually strengthened slavery within Africa•By the mid-nineteenth century, slaves were 50 percent of the population in some areas.•Slaves worked in palm oil or plantation labor, military forces, or as palm oil or ivory porters, not as domestic servants.•In 1850, northern Nigeria had more slaves than independent Brazil and almost as many as the United States.•Africa became in time the largest slaveholding continent.Slavery in Africa
Until the mid-eighteenth century, societies mostly produced for their own subsistence. Surpluses entered trade arteries but did not transform their own societiesBy the mid-nineteenth century, people increasingly worked to produce goods they could sell.Economic Reordering
Beginning in northwestern Europe and British North America, rising consumption by working families led to large expansion in trade.•Sugar and silver pioneering products•Other staples such as tea (eighteenth century)Global trading trickled down from the elites to include ordinary people.•Slaves and laborers used their meager wages to buy imported cloth manufactured in Europe from the raw cotton they had picked previously.The expansion of trade meant traders needed new services.•Insurance, bookkeeping, and recording legal documentsAccountants and lawyers also profited.New class emerges: bourgeoisie, made up of urban businessmen, financiers, and other property owners without aristocratic originsAn Industrious Revolution
Gradual buildup of technical knowledge, inventions, applications, and diffusion allowed for the emergence of manufacturing Industrial revolution in Britain •Access to waterways (canals)•A large accessible source of coal and iron ore, key to manufacturing•An effective system to mobilize capital for investments while expanding their domestic and international markets•Application of steam power to textile production•Access to colonies as sources of financial investment, raw materials, and markets for manufactured goodsThe Industrial Revolution (1 of 2)
Advent of steam engine demonstrated relations between inventor and investor•James Watt (1736–1819), inventor, joins with industrialist Matthew Boulton, marketer of the steam engine.•Catalyzed a revolution in transportationThe Industrial Revolution (2 of 2)
Textile production was critical in the transformations brought on by steam power.