1.(Sourcing) When was this document written? 2.(Contextualization) Look at your timeline. Why might Galileo write a letterdefending himself at this time? 3.(Close Reading) According to Galileo, why do some people think his teachingsare heretical? 4.(Close Reading) How does Galileo defend himself against these charges? 5.(Context) Using the information on your timeline , do you think the CatholicChurch would accept Galileo's defense? Why or why not?
1.(Close Reading) Explain two reasons Cardinal Bellarmine gave for believing thegeocentric theory . a . b. 2.(Close Reading) How did Cardinal Bellarmine respond to the following argumentsfrom Galileo? a. The Bible passages about the sun standing still should not have been interpreted literally. b. The model of the universe (heliocentric or geocentric) is not a matter of salvation. 3.(Context) Why do you think the Catholic Church was so committed to defendingthe literal meaning of the Bible passages?
1. The proposition that the sun is in the center of the world and immovable from its place is absurd, philosophically false , and formally heretical ; because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures. 2. The proposition that the earth is not the center of the world, nor immovable, but that it moves is also absurd, philosophically false, and, theologically considered, at least erroneous in faith . Therefore, in the most holy name of our Lord Jesus Christ and of His Most Glorious Mother Mary, We pronounce, judge, and declare, that you Galileo . . . have made yourself suspected by this Holy Office of heresy, that is, of having believed and held the doctrine (which is false and contrary to the Holy and Divine Scriptures) that the sun is the center of the world , and that it does not move from east to west, and that the earth does move , and is not the center of the world ; also , that an opinion can be held and supported as probable, after it has been declared contrary to the Holy Scripture. Source: "The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633 ."
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP READING LI K E A H1Sp 1AN Document C: Condemnation of Gali leo ( Modified ) Vocabulary condemnation : a statement of very strong criticism sc r ipture: text from the Bible denounce: to declare something is wrong or evil doctrine: a set of beliefs eminent: distinguished, high in station proposition : a statement expressing a ju