hard approach. (Day & Hamblin, 1994). The hard approach relies mostly on coercion, close supervision, and tight controls in order to establish an environment of control and command. (Sales, 2002). The soft approach on the other hand is about being permissive and seeking harmony within the group in hope of that the employees will cooperate when asked to do so. Both of these two approaches lead to lower levels of output because it is not proper management (Coch & French, 1998).The ideal management approach under Theory X management would be somewhere in between these two extreme examples. It would be good, for instance, to employ coerciveness under tough situations, but a soft approach if the situation faced is under control, in that way the employee would be feeling neither threatened, nor boosted by the treatment received. However, the assumptions under Theory X are inappropriate because what it portrays is incorrect. Theory X employs confusion on the employee and implies too much decision responsibility on the employer. What Theory X assumptions solely do is to point out a bad manager from the crowd. (Morse, 1993). If we refer to Maslow´s hierarchy of needs satisfied needs are no longer a motivation. On the other hand, using Theory X management employers satisfy employees lower needs with money and benefits and once those lower needs are fulfilled there are no motivational factor left. According to Net MBA Business Knowledge Center(n.d.) Theory X management can actually hinder and prevent the satisfaction of higher needs because the only way it is possible for them employees to attempt to reach the higher needs is by seeking more compensation. Therefore it is more than likely that they will focus on monetary rewards even though that is not the way to self-fulfillment. (Morse, 1993).
Theory Y on the other hand relates to a participative management style where the employees are more involved in the process. On contrary from Theory X, Theory Y managers believe that:•Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
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