Maintain improve hisher health pender 2011 theory

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maintain/ improve his/her health (Pender, 2011) Theory Context The Health Promotion Model is based on two social theories, Fishbein’s expectancy- value theory and Bandura’s social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1985; Feather, 1982 as cited by Pender, 2011). The expectancy-value theory is used to predict a person’s attitude towards a particular action. It also determines if a person perceives a certain action as obtainable in order to produce a positive outcome. The social cognitive theory is based on the assumption that if people change the way they think, it directly affects their behavior (Pender, 2011). According to Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya (2011), nursing paradigms consist of person, environment, health, and nursing (Metaparadigm Concepts in Nursing, 2016). The HPM also utilizes these concepts and provides a way for nurses to encourage change by the gaining insight to an individual’s perceptions, beliefs, and lifestyle in order to determine a particular course of action to achieve health promoting behavior. Pender makes 7 assumptions in the HPM that are based on nursing and behavioral science perspectives (Pender, 2011). Theory Content Pender includes 3 major concepts in the HPM. They are a person’s individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, behavioral outcome- health promoting behavior (Pender, 2011). These major concepts have a direct and indirect effect on the likeliness of participating in health-promoting behaviors. HPM makes many theoretical propositions. For instance, just to name a few, a person will engage in a particular activity as long as they perceive the outcome as something that will be beneficial to them, and that an individual’s self-efficacy can determine how successful they will 3
Running head: A Critique of the Health Promotion Model be when making behavioral changes (Pender, 2011, p.5). The propositions in this theory are clearly stated and can be applied to many types of practices and studies. 2. Evaluation of the Theory Significance HPM is similar to many other models that are based on illness prevention. HPM focuses on health as a positive state. Unlike its counterpart the Health Belief Model, that primarily focuses on a person’s perception of a health issue and the importance of changing that behavior (Health Belief Model, 2012). An individual is usually motivated by fear when looking through the context of the Health Belief Model. Pender’s HPM is geared towards a “positive affect

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