Stemming from the work of freud and others in the

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Stemming from the work of Freud and others in the psychiatric fields Crime is attributable to mental disorder and dysfunction E.g., Feeblemindedness; Psychopathic deviations Like biological factors, these are intrinsic to the person
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Implications of Psychoanalytic and Psychological Theory “General Motors does not have an inferiority complex, United States Steel does not suffer from an unresolved Oedipus problem, and the Duponts do not desire to return to the womb” If it doesn’t apply to business men, why should it apply to the lower class?
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Labeling Theory Labeling theory did not come into its own until the 1960s A cursory understanding of labeling did exist prior The basis of the theory has origins in the Chicago school at the beginning of the 20 th century The deviant and criminal are labeled as such and treated accordingly White-collar offenders are able to avoid this label and thus its effects
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Anomie/Strain/SD Theories Development spanned Sutherland’s scholarship Mutually influenced one another Crime is linked to poverty or correlates of poverty, such as strain Obviously does not apply to white- collar offenders, as Sutherland conceptualizes them
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Overall Assessment of these Theories/Risk Factors Derived from samples biased on socioeconomic status Do not apply to white-collar offenders Do not even explain the criminality of the lower class, since the factors are not related to a general process of all criminality Overall, they are invalid
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From General Theory to Special Case Therefore, crime must be social, specifically a special class of learned behavior Conforming and non-conforming behavior arise in the same way (i.e. differential association) Crimes of the upper-class are one form of, and an often ignored type of criminal behavior Considered even more serious than street crime, because they undermine
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The Creation of the Concept
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1939 Address Highlights Figuratively threw the books out Crime is not caused by biological deficiency or psychological abnormality. [Disingenuously] claimed he was not interested in social reform or ‘muckraking’ Compared WCC to what Al Capone called the “legitimate Rackets” Power and class bias allow white-collar offenders to avoid prosecution
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Defining White-Collar Crime Traditional methods are insufficient Most are never tried or behaviors are not against criminal law, maybe not even illegal A more general definition of crime is needed Criterion must be consistent with both traditional and white-collar crime Sutherland’s definition of crime thus defines both white-collar crime and street crime
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Crime, as defined by Sutherland 1.
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