Costs divided between a large number of actors or

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costs divided between a large number of actors or taxpayers, the very condition upon which these measures build may not be met. If corruption is unobtrusive, a very limited number of actors may engage in activities against corruption and anticorruption measures will suffer from a lack of “prin- cipals”. The paper also shows how the need and greed distinction helps us better understand how collective action theory, presented as an alternative and underused theoretical perspective in anti- corruption work (Persson, Rothstein & Teorell 2011, Gatti 2002; Bauhr 2011; Bauhr & Nasiritousi 2011; Bauhr & Grimes 2011), can be used to understand the effects of anticorruption measures, and how its relevance can be extended to contexts where the overall level of corruption is low. The Engine of Corruption The need and greed distinction builds on the notion that the motives for being corrupt vary be- tween different settings. Simply put, the basic motives for paying a bribe or engaging in corruption can be either need or greed. As outlined in the introduction, citizens pay bribes either to receive services that they are legally entitled to and that are conditioned upon paying a bribe (“need”) 1 , or to receive advantages that they are not legally entitled to (“greed”). The relationship between actors involved in these two forms of corruption differs. Need corruption builds on cohersion and extor- tion, greed corruption on collusion. The difference between collusive and extortive corruption has been rather extensively described and studied (Klitgaard 1988, Flatters and MacLeod 1995, Hin- dricks et al. 1999, Brunetti and Weder 2003), particularly in the literature on tax evasion. The need and greed distinction is closely related to this distinction, since differences in basic motivations for paying a bribe generally imply different relationships between the actors involved. However, insuf- ficient attention is paid to the implications of the different basic motivations for paying a bribe in these two forms of corruption. Thus, while most other typologies of corruption typically focus on scale (petty or grand/ administrative or state capture), type of action (bribe/kickbacks/bid rig- ging/fraud), and type of actor (political or business), the need and greed distinction instead focuses 1 Cf Karlins (2005)
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5 attention on the nature of the basic motives for engaging in corruption and the relation between those participating in corruption. At the root of the most commonly used distinctions between forms of corruption lies the scale or the profitability of different types of corruption. The distinction between petty and grand corruption, for instance, also involves the scale and level of the problem. Uslaner (2008) uses this distinction in his study of inequality and argues that petty corruption will have a lesser effect on inequality compared to grand corruption, since petty corruption is a form of low-level corruption that involves small sums of money. Grand corruption, on the other hand, takes place at the higher levels and involves bigger sums and therefore contributes more to inequality. Another common
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  • Spring '12
  • Ahmed
  • Sweden, Political corruption, Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index, Institutional Trust

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