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IN CONCLUSION schemas are the scaffolding that we use to interpret events amd if we cant remember the full details of an event, we “fill in” the gaps with schemas as we construct the past VIRTUES OF SCHEMAS enables us to store the central meaning or the gist of new information. Helps us understand new info more readily or fill in missing parts of it using “default values”. Makes the world more predictableDISADVANTAGE OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY we don’t always remember correctly which leads to distortions and false memories DEESE ROEDIGER MCDERMOTT effect study list words w/ strong association ex : nap , be, rest. Then recall the words from list and add another associated protoype ex: sleep and ask if you remember the word from the list. People will mistankenly remember sleep even if it wasn’t on the list because they construct a schema at study that affects remembering. FALSE MEMORIES: three exmaples a. misattribution effect: a failure in source monitoring. Retrieving info that is assigned to a wrong source. ex: recalling the right person but from the wrong place b. misinformation effect: effect of leading questions on false memory formation. Participants view simulated crash and are asked after “ how fast were the cars going when they (SMASH/HIT) eachother?. If they asked the participants smashed, they assumed they were driving faster than if they were asked hit. Basically, how a question is framed can affect how information is remembered. c. implanted memories: asked ppl to recall childhood experiences recounted by their parents over three sessions. A false memory was added to list of experiences. 20% of people had a false memory of this made up event at the end of the experiment SUMMARY OF LECTURE: Memories are reconstructed and not permanent stores. Flashbulb memories change with time . Schemas guide how we encode and retrieve information. Distortions in memeory can be adaptive and “sinful”: they help plan for future but also lead to false memories Lecture 11 IMAGINATION INFLATION TECHNIQUE participants asked to rate how likely an event could have happened to them, then imagined some of these events (that did not happen to them) ex: getting stuck in a tree. Participants rerate the same list of childhoodhood eventd for whether they happened to them or not. The
PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r events that they imagined ( ex: getting stuck in a tree) are more likely to be re-rated as having occurred to them FALSE ADULT MEMORIES gambling experiment wit friend. They were told that the guy cheated which made many believe that they witnessed the cheating. More in depth: Episodic and semantic memory EPISODIC MEMORY conscious memory for an event from a specifc time and place. “my delicious dinner in paris”SEMANTIC MEMORY Conscious memory for general facts and information. Paris is the capital of France. Semantic memory is acquired knowledge of the world and self that is accumulated (facts,concepts,ideas), impotant for knowing the definition and uses of things QUILLIAN’s model of semantic memory: there are units, properties and pointers. Searching through a network takes time (mental