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Gutek, G. L. (2011).Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction(5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Moreland, J. P. (2007). Kingdom triangle. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.Robert Owen and James Mill shared some of the same ideals on education,but in some areas their viewpoints were drastically different. Both Owen and Mill's believed that education was a means to address poverty and vices. The deviation from this was that Owen specifically targeted women and children as those who were in need of education. Mill's doesn't seem to address who his education was really focused on,but given the fact that heviewed his wife as an "unintellectual,"I can't help but wonder if that is how he viewed all women (Gutek, 2011).Additionally, both Owen's and Mill's took on a more secular view of education.Owen's beliefs were housed withincommunitarianism.Communal property and education was a means ofconditioning in order to get desired behaviors.Mill's beliefs were housed on individualism and that education should not be used as a means of control.They believed education was the route to establishing morals and ethics within the community.The specifics of those morals and ethics are what was different between the two. Owen's did not believe that competition should be fostered in education or within the community.Conversely, Mill's believed that competitionwas good because thenthe top individuals would set themselves apart.Mill's ideals were built on his belief that people could do whatever they wanted as long as they did not do any harm to others.This idea can be viewed as minimalist ethics in the “thin” world we live in today (Moreland, 2007). Owen's believed that everything done should be for the greater good of the community (Gutek, 2011).ReferencesGutek, G. L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction(5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Moreland, J. P. (2007). Kingdom triangle. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.Pestalozzi based affective and cognitive areas of education on his concept of natural education, focus on sensory-based education, and his background in instructing students and teachers (Gutec, 2011, p. 170). Pestalozzi’s framed his ideas during the 18th century Enlightenment period with a naturalistic and humanistic slant (Gutec, 2011, p. 160). The thinker believed in the idea that from birth the brain is absent of ideas but through the imprints of the sensory factory, it develops thoughts and concepts (Gutec, 2011, p. 159). Pestalozzi believed that natural educationshould nurture the triplicate forces (the intellect, the will, and the body) of humans as a way to solve social and political ailments in a society (Gutec, 2011, p. 170). Pestalozzi created two teaching methods: 1) general and 2) special. The general focused on an environment of
“emotional security” and the special method focused on “sensory learning and concept formation” (Pestalozzi, 2011, p. 171).