With nobody actively training the cats to escape how could the animals figure

With nobody actively training the cats to escape how

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With nobody actively training the cats to escape, how could the animals figure out how to escape? Trial and error; eventually find out how to get out - The amount of time to get out decreased as the trials were completed more times Skinner’s Behaviorism - ‘reinforcement’ strengthens behavior; ‘punishment’ weakens it - anything that made the behavior stronger and more likely to occur is reinforcement; weaker and less likely is punishment - Skinner Box (operant chamber) Box with limited features where the animal is placed Two Ways of Reinforcing Behavior (thus increasing behavior) 1. Positive Reinforcement: Response followed by a rewarding stimulus Increases response 2. Negative Reinforcement: Response followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus Increases response Punishment - Punishment occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response - May involve presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a rewarding stimulus (child behaving poorly, put in a time-out) Positive and negative punishment, respectively Punishment ALWAYS decreases the future probability of the behavior Difference Between Punishment and Negative Reinforcement - Punishment (positive or negative) decreases behavior - Reinforcement (positive or negative) increases behavior - Examples: 1. A puppy chews a shoe and gets swatted with a newspaper (positive punishment) 2. The suspect confesses and torture is ceased (negative reinforcement) 3. A child puts a tooth under her pillow and gets money (positive reinforcement) 4. A man stretches every morning to avoid getting back pain (negative reinforcement) 5. A child talks back to her teacher and has to stay inside for recess (negative punishment) 6. A man repeatedly yells at his dog to stop barking, but the dog starts barking more often (positive reinforcement) Schedules of Reinforcement
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- Rules determining which occurrence of a given response will be followed by the reinforcer - Continuous Reinforcement: Every response is reinforced (eg. Every lever press) Faster learning, but susceptible to extinction - Intermittent (Partial) Reinforcement Only some responses are reinforced (eg. Every 10 th lever press) Slower learning, but less susceptible to extinction Schedules of Partial Reinforcement - Fixed Ratio Reinforcement after a set number of responses - Variable Ratio Reinforcement after an average, but variable, number of responses Discriminative Stimulus - A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence - Eg. When the light is on, the reward contingency is in effect (Skinner’s box experiment) Shaping - Reinforcing successive approximations to a target behavior - Speeds up the learning process Superstitious Behavior - Operant conditioning can lead to superstitious behavior when a reinforcing stimulus is inadvertently paired with some response - Skinner demonstrated superstitious behavior in pigeons Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination -
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