What is the most common cause of chronic liver

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what is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the US? hep C 61. what is the most common mode of HCV transmission? the sharing of contaminated needles and equipment among IV drug users
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62. co-infection with HIV and HCV places the patient at greater risk for? progression to cirrhosis 63. the hep D virus is also called? the delta virus 64. what requires hep B to replicate? the hep D virus 65. how is hep D transmitted? percutaneously 66. for hep D virus to occur, what must precede the HDV? HBV 67. is there a vaccine for HDV? no 68. how is hep E transmitted? the fecal-oral route 69. what is the usual mode of transmission for hep E? drinking contaminated water 70. what is the incubation period for hep A? 15-50 days (average 28) 71. what is the incubation period for hep B? 45-180 days (average 56-96) 72. what is the incubation period for hep C? 14-180 days (average 56) 73. what is the incubation period for hep D? 2-26 weeks 74. what is the incubation period for hep E? 15-64 days (average 26-42) 75. term for when bile flow is interrupted? cholestasis 76. what are the clinical manifestations for when the complement system is activated in the early phases of hepatitis? rash, angioedema, arthritis, fever, and malaise 77. term for abnormal proteins found in the blood? cryoglobulinemia 78. what has been found to be secondary to immune complex activation in hepatitis? cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis 79. what are the manifestations of acute hepatitis? anorexia, N/V, right upper quadrant discomfort, constipation or diarrhea, decreased sense of taste and smell, malaise, HA, fever, arthralgias, urticaria, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, jaundice, pruritis, dark urine, bilirubinemia, light stools, fatigue 80. what are the manifestations of chronic hepatitis? malaise, easy fatigability, hepatomegaly, myalgias/arthralgias, elevated liver enzymes (AST, ALT) 81. how long does the acute phase usually last? 1-4 months 82. during the incubation period, symptoms may include? malaise, anorexia and weight loss, fatigue, nausea, occasional vomiting, and right upper quadrant discomfort 83. physical examination for acute hepatitis may include? hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and sometimes splenomegaly 84. what is the period of maximal infectivity? the acute phase 85. another term for jaundice? icteric 86. what results from an alteration in normal bilirubin metabolism or flow of bile into the hepatic or biliary duct systems? jaundice 87. why might urine be darker in people with hepatitis? because of excess bilirubin being excreted by the kidneys 88. why might the stools be light or clay colored in a person with hepatitis? because bilirubin cannot flow out of the liver due to obstruction or inflammation of the bile ducts
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89. what occurs as a result of the accumulation of bile salts beneath the skin?
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  • Summer '18
  • NONE
  • Hepatology, Hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis

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