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LearningCHAPTER 4 -91-error learning. All three theories of learning are related in that they focus on what’s going on inside the learner’s mind during the learning process as opposed to the external stimuli and rewards of classical and operant conditioning. A third category of learning is that of observational learning, or the learning of a new behavior by observing someone else who is performing that behavior. The term learning/performance distinctiondescribes the fact that learning can take place without actual performance. Albert Bandurahas been a major contributor to the study of observational learning and conducted a series of classic studies observing children’s learned behaviors with a blow-up “Bobo” doll. Bandura concluded that four elements were needed for observational learning to occur, the four elements are attention, memory, imitation, and motivation. STUDY HINTS 1.
Many students get confused with the terms of classical conditioning. There are four major components to this type of learning, unconditioned stimulus (UCS), conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned response (UCR) and conditioned response (CR). The best way to keep these terms straight is to ask yourself two questions. 1.Is the event I am interested in a stimulus or a response? 2.Is the stimulus/response something that was learned or something that occurs naturally, by instinct. The first question is the easiest way to break down the information. If an event is a stimulus, it will cause something else to happen. List some examples of stimuli here. ________________________________________________________________________ You might have mentioned any number of stimuli including events such as a bright light, a puff of air, a loud siren, a soft whisper, a touch on your arm, the smell of cookies, a written word. The list is quite large. A stimulus is any event that causes a response. Now that you have a good feeling for what stimuli are, try listing some examples of some possible responses. ________________________________________________________________________