For example most everyone knows that baking soda and

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and more complex than chemistry. For example, most everyone knows that baking soda and vinegar when combined, create a reaction similar to a volcano erupting. People know exactly what goes into creating that reaction and how to recreate it. However, because no two minds are exactly alike, psychologists, though they can make educated guesses, have no true way of knowing exactly how an individual may react. For example, if a person’s
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significant other breaks up with them, it may be likely to assume that person would be sad and start crying (opposite reaction). However, that person could be happy, and start laughing. Not everyone thinks or reacts the same way, so there’s no completely accurate way of predicting how every individual would react. Reactivity refers to how humans think, act, and feel differently when they know they are being observed, versus when they are not (Schacter et al., 2017). This is different from the subjects that are observed in chemistry, because reactions will occur regardless of who is observing. For example, an atom of cesium-133 oscillates 9,192,631,770 times per second (Schacter et al., 2017), no matter what. Human behavior often differs depending on whether or not people are observing because of personal insecurities, or the desire to be portrayed in a certain manner, leading to a difference in behavior/reaction dependent upon if someone is observing them. 2. Three rules of ethics that psychologists must follow in order to maintain the safety, well-being, and dignity of their participants include informed consent, protection from harm, and the rules of deception. Before conducting a psychological study involving human subjects, the psychologist must first get what is known as informed consent, in which the participant signs a written agreement agreeing to participate in the study and informs them of all the risks that participation may entail (Schacter et al., 2017). This ensures the safety of the subject because it makes them aware of the potential dangers that may pose harm or pain. Even after giving informed consent, participants always have the right to withdraw from the study with no penalty (Schacter et al., 2017). The protection from harm rule requires psychologists take every necessary safety measure to ensure the safety of their subject, whether it be from physical, or even psychological harm. If there is no safe way to conduct a study, and there is a possibility the research participant could potentially be harmed, then the psychologist may not perform the study (Schacter et al., 2017). A third example of a rules of ethics includes the rule involving deception. This rule states that psychologists may only use deception when it is justified
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  • Summer '15
  • MatthewDay
  • Psychology, Schacter et al.

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