8 distinguish between the cis and trans faces of the

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8. Distinguish between the cis and trans faces of the Golgi apparatus. 9. Describe the various times apoptosis may occur within an organism. 10. What is the endomembrane system? Describe how the organelles within the endomembrane system work together when producing proteins that will be shipped outside the cell. 11. Describe the destination of proteins produced by free-ribosomes and ribosomes attached to the Rough ER. 12. Describe each of the four types of intercellular junctions. 13. Draw a cross-section of the cell membrane. Label proteins, cholesterol, glycoprotein, glycolipid, and phospholipids (and their fatty acid tails and phosphate heads). 14. Discuss how the amphipathic nature of phospholipids leads to the semi-permeability of the cell membrane. 15. Describe the possible functions of membrane proteins. 16. How does water cross the cell membrane? Be sure to discuss water’s chemistry and the membrane. Include a discussion of Peter Agre’s (p92-93) work. 17. The cell membrane is semi-permeable. What types of molecules cross the membrane easily? What types of molecules cannot cross the membrane? How do transport proteins help some molecules cross the membrane? 18. When biomedical researchers design drugs that must enter cells to be effective, they sometimes add methyl (-CH 3 ) groups to make the drug molecules more likely to pass through the membranes. Conversely when researchers design drugs to act on the surface of membranes they often add a charged group to decrease the likelihood that the drugs will pass through membranes and enter cells. Explain why these strategies make sense. 19. Describe diffusion. How does simple diffusion differ from facilitated diffusion? 20. What are gated ion channels? 21. How does active transport differ from passive transport? Give examples of each. 22. How do membrane pumps actually create gradients? Use the example of a solute-rich sports drink to explain this phenomenon. 23. How does the sodium potassium pump help maintain membrane potential? Include a discussion of ATP’s role. 24. What two factors influence an electrochemical gradient? 25. How does cotransport work? Give an example. 26. Distinguish between phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis. 27. What is the net direction of osmosis if a cell is placed in a (a) hypertonic solution? (b) hypotonic solution? (c) isotonic solution? What happens to a plant cell in each of these types of solutions? Why? 28. What is the difference between tonicity and water potential ( ψ )? Why do we use water potential when discussion the movement of water into and out of plant cells? 29. Some farmers throughout the world irrigate crops using groundwater, which has a relatively high content of dissolved salts. How might this practice affect water uptake in crops? 30. If a plant cell immersed in distilled water has a ψ S of -0.7 MPa and a ψ of 0 MPa, what is the cell’s ψ P ? If you put the same cell in an open beaker of solution that has a ψ of -0.4 MPa, what would the cell’s ψ P be at equilibrium?
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