High density lipoproteins hdl remove excess

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Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems
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Chapter 15 / Exercise 11
Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems
Sherwood
Expert Verified
High density lipoproteins (HDL)- Remove excess cholesterol from body cells and the blood and transport it to the liver for elimination Lipid MetabolismCholesterol comes from some foods but most is synthesized by hepatocytesFatty foods that don’t contain cholesterol can still increase blood cholesterol levelsoWhen saturated fats are broken down in the body, hepatocytes use some of the breakdown products to make cholesterolIncreases in total cholesterol levels are associated with a greater risk of coronary artery diseaseExercise, diet and certain drugs are used to reduce high cholesterol levelsThe Fate of LipidsLipids may be oxidized to produce ATPIf the body does not need lipids at any given time, they get stored in adipose tissueSome are used as structural molecules or to synthesize other essential substancesoPhospholipids oLipoproteinsoMyelinLipid MetabolismLipid Catabolism is the process of splitting triglycerides into fatty acids and glyceroloIn order for muscle, liver, and adipose tissue to oxidize fatty acids from triglycerides to produce ATP triglycerides need to be splitoCatalyzed by lipaseoStimulated by epi and norepi, inhibited by insulinLipid anabolism (lipogenesis) is the process of synthesizing lipids from glucose or amino acids. It occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed to satisfy ATP needs oInsulin stimulates lipogenesisoExcess dietary carbs, proteins, and fats all have the same fate- they are all converted into triglycerides.If ATP supply in a cell is high, glycerol is converted into glucoseIf ATP supply is low, glycerol enters the catabolic pathway to pyruvic acid
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Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 15 / Exercise 11
Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems
Sherwood
Expert Verified
Fatty acids are catabolized differently than glycerol and yield more ATPLarge fatty acids can lead up to 129 ATPs following complete oxidationAs part of normal fatty acid catabolism, hepatocytes can form acetoacetic acid from acetyl coAFormation of acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutxric acid, and acetone in the liver is calledketogenesisProtein MetabolismProtein catabolism Deanimation- animo group is removed by liver before entering krebs cycle Generates ammonia which is toxic, converted by liver to urea which is excreted in the urine. Krebs cycle to produce ATPLast resort for energy (protein starvation)AnabolismoEssential amino acids: must be ingestedoSynthesisFunctionsoStructureoEnzymesoHormonesThe Fate of ProteinsProtein catabolism yields amino acids which are converted to other amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, or glucoseCells oxidize amino acids to generate ATP via the krebs cycleoBefore amino acids can enter kreb cycle they must first undergo deamination in the liver, the ammonia produced must be detoxified in the liver into ureaProtein anabolism creates new proteins by bonding together amino acids on ribosomesMetabolic AdaptationsSome aspects of metabolism depend on how much time has passed since the last mealo

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