April 9, 1865 General Lee surrendered to General Grant at the Appomattox Court house. Sherman marched north. Lee headed southwest and hopes to go to New York. The Results: War is over after 4 years, Union preserved, and the slaves were free. Grant allowed the Confederates to keep their arms and return home. Ex Parte Merriman 1861 A supreme court case that Chief Justice Taney ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress. Lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-Unionists during the Civil War. Supreme Court decision in 1861 which said if the public's safety was endangered, only Congress had the right to suspend a writ of habeas corpus. Chief Justice Taney's ruling was in response to President Lincoln's expansion of presidential powers during the Civil War. Copperheads Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. They undermined the war effort and posed a threat to Lincoln's reelection. Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South Morrill Tariff Act (1861)
raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufacturers; high protective tarrifs to project industrialists a tarriff which was higher than before. This was an example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet. 1861 During the Buchanan's presidency: Passage of the tariff was possible because antiprotection Southerners had left Congress after secession. This act raised the tariff rates to protect and encourage industry and the high wages of workers. This replaced the low pro-South Tariff of 1857. It also helped in raising revenue for the Civil War. 1860; Antiprotection Southerners had left Congress with the secession of southern states, which allowed Congress to pass this Act. The Morrill Tariff Act superceded the low Tariff of 1857 and increased duties by 5-10% (equal to the rates of the Walker Tariff of 1846). It raised revenue for the Civil War and protected manufacturers against internal taxes. This Act identified with the Republican party because most Republicans were industrialists who became rich from the benefits of the tariff. Two additional tariffs sponsored by Morrill, each one higher, were passed during Abraham Lincoln's administration to raise urgently needed revenue during the Civil War. Homestead Act (1862) Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm, turned out to be a cruel hoax because the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo'd or failed until "dry farming" took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects Act of 1862 that permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to claim 160 acres of public land and to purchase it for a small fee after living on it for five years.
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