0 0 10 51 20 86 30 50 ap biology 6 cumulative oxygen

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AP BIOLOGY 6 Cumulative Oxygen Consumed (mL) _______________________________________________________________________________________ Time (minutes) 0 10 20 30 40 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 22 o C Germinating Seeds 0.0 8.8 16.0 23.7 32.0 Dry Seeds 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 ________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 o C Germinating Seeds 0.0 2.9 6.2 9.4 12.5 Dry Seeds 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.2 ________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Using the graph paper provided, plot the results for the germinating seeds at 22 o C and 0 o C. b) Calculate the rate of oxygen consumption for the germinating seeds at 22 o C, using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes. c) Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: 1) germinating seeds at 22 o C and at 10 o C; 2) germinating seeds and dry seeds. d) Describe the essential features of an experimental apparatus that could be used to measure oxygen consumption by a small organism. Explain why each of these features is necessary. 1995: Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. For 3 of the following 5 processes involving energy transfer, explain how each functions in the cell and give an example. Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose. Cellular movement Active transport Synthesis of molecules Chemiosmosis Fermentation 2003 Regulatory (control) mechanisms in organisms are necessary for survival. Choose THREE of the following examples, and explain how each is regulated. (i) Flowering in plants (ii) Water balance in plants (iii) Water balance in terrestrial vertebrates (iv) Body temperature in terrestrial vertebrates 2005: Yeast cells are placed in an apparatus with a solution of sugar (a major nutrient for yeast metabolism). The apparatus detects bubbles of gas released by the yeast cells. The rate of respiration varies with the surrounding temperatures as indicated by the data below. Temperature ( o C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number of bubbles of gas produced per minute 0 3 7 12 7 4 1 0 a) Graph the results on the axes provided. Determine optimum temperature for respiration in the yeast. b) Respiration is a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Using your knowledge of enzymes and the data above, analyze and explain the results of this experiment. c) Design an experiment to test the effect of varying the pH of the sugar solution on the rate of respiration. Include a prediction of the expected results. 2006 The evolution of circulatory systems allowed larger and more-complex animals to arise. a) Describe the respiratory and digestive systems’ specialized structures that facilitate the movement of oxygen and glucose into the circulatory system of mammals. b) Explain how oxygen and glucose are transported within the circulatory system of mammals. c) Explain the transfer of oxygen and glucose from the blood and into the active cells of mammals.
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