A transition leads from the first movement into the

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A transition leads from the first movement into the lyrical Andante. The transition to the finale alludes to the opening theme of the first movement. The ABA' middle movement is a romance for violin and orchestra.
Concertos The last movement is in sonata-rondo form. The lightness suggests the character of a scherzo. The violin and orchestra share equally in the finale. The leading melodies move seamlessly between the soloist and orchestra.
Oratorios Two oratorios became standards. St. Paul (1836) Elijah (1846) Common features Composed for choral festivals Treated biblical subjects Highly acclaimed in Europe and North America
Oratorios The final chorus of Elijah is Handelian in spirit. The work opens with a powerful homorhythmic statement. A vigorous fugue culminates in a chordal statement of the theme. An imitative “Amen” closes the work. Contrasts of minor and major and chromaticism suggest recent musical styles.
Lieder ohne Worte (Songs without Words) for piano Mendelssohn published forty-eight works in eight books.
Songs without Words , Book 1, Op. 19, No. 1
Lieder ohne Worte (Songs without Words) for piano The first song (1830) can be divided into three parts, similar to a lied. Left-hand bass Right-hand arpeggiations Singer’s melody It is a challenge to play all three parts smoothly. Mendelssohn’s use of perpetual motion recalls several preludes from Bach’s Well- Tempered Clavier .
ROBERT SCHUMANN (1810– 1856)
Piano music Prior to 1840, all of Schumann’s published music was for piano. A master of miniature forms, Schumann wrote mostly short character pieces.
Piano music The character pieces are often grouped in sets with colorful names. Papillons (Butterflies) Carnaval Fantasiestucke ̈ (Fantasy Pieces) Kinderscenen (Scenes from Childhood) Nachtstucke ̈ (Night Pieces) Album fur die Jugend ̈ (Album for the Young) contains pieces for children.
Piano music Although the titles suggest poetic descriptions, Schumann said he composed the works before giving them titles. His own complex personality is reflected in the many moods.
Carnaval (1834–35) Conjures up a masquerade ball in carnival season Twenty short pieces in dance rhythms Each piece has a title derived from: A dance type A costumed figure or acquaintance (including Clara, his future wife) An interaction between revelers, such as flirtation or recognition
Carnaval (1834–35) Eusebius One facet of Schumann’s personality A visionary dreamer named after a fourth- century pope Dreamy fantasy quality Slow, undancelike, chromatic bass Curving melody in septuplets
Carnaval , Eusebius
Carnaval (1834-35) Florestan Also a facet of Schumann’s personality An impulsive revolutionary named after a character in Beethoven’s Fidelio Fast, impassioned waltz with angular melodies, pulsating dissonances, and offbeat sforzandos The rapidly shifting ideas never find a satisfactory cadence.
Carnaval , Florestan

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