The testes produce sperm and hormones pgs 1289 1290 b Spermatogenesis pgs 1284

The testes produce sperm and hormones pgs 1289 1290 b

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The testes produce sperm and hormones (pgs. 1289-1290) b. Spermatogenesis (pgs. 1284-1285) 6. Female Reproductive Physiology (Ch. 27) a. Oogenesis & the ovarian cycle (pgs. 1294-1300)
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b. The uterine cycle (pgs. 1302-1304) Chapter 19: Cardiovascular Physiology (pgs. 846-875) 1. Electrical Events at the Heart a. The Intrinsic Conduction System of the Heart b. Action Potentials in Cardiac Cells c. The Electrocardiogram (ECG) & Common ECG Abnormalities 2. The Cardiac Cycle: Analyses of the Wiggers diagram 3. Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate a. Factors that Influence Stroke Volume b. Factors that Influence Heart Rate Chapters 20 & 22: Control of Blood Flow & Pressure & Respiratory Physiology (pgs. 900-901; 904-905; 914-917; 1048-1050; 1063) 1. Blood flow, pressure, & resistance (pgs. 900-901; 904-905) 2. Regulatory mechanisms for blood pressure (pgs. 914-917) 3. Pressure relationships in the thoracic cavity (pgs. 1048-1050) 4. Gas exchange & transport in the respiratory system (pg. 1063) Chapter 23: Digestive Processes (pgs. 1126; 1127-1128; 1129-1137; also see Table 23.8) 1. Overview of Digestive Processes: The Big Picture 2. Composition of Bile & Pancreatic Juice 3. Chemical Digestion & Absorption of Major Nutrients a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Lipids
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Chapter 17 1. Be able to list and describe the two cellular mechanisms of hormone action. 1. Second messenger systems (via plasma membrane receptors) – amino-acid based hormones a. Amines b. Peptides c. Proteins All amino acid derived hormones bind to cell membrane receptors located on the extracellular surface of the cell membrane. They do not directly affect the transcription of target genes, but initiate a signaling cascade that is carried out by a molecule called a second messenger. In this case, the hormone is called a first messenger. cAMP – Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate. Amino acid hormones bind to membrane receptors, activate g protein. Activated g protein activates adenylyl cyclase. AC catalyses conversion of ATP to cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinases, which phosphorylate proteins in cytoplasm, activating them to alter cell activity. 2. Direct gene activation (via intracellular receptors) – Lipid hormones and thyroid hormones a. Steroids b. Thyroid hormones Lipid and thyroid hormones can diffuse through the plasma membrane, binds to intracellular receptor. Receptor/hormone complex enters nucleus. Binds to hormone response element. Binding initiates transcription of gene to mRNA. mRNA directs protein synthesis. 2. Be able to list and describe the three types of endocrine gland stimuli and provide an example for each stimulus type. 1. Humoral Stimulus – low levels of Ca2+ in capillary blood stimulates secretion of PTH by parathyroid glands 2. Neural Stimulus – preganglionic sympathetic fibres stimulate adrenal medulla cells to secrete catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine) 3. Hormonal Stimulus – hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands (adrenal cortex, thyroid, gonads) to secrete hormones
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