The testes produce sperm and hormones (pgs. 1289-1290)b.Spermatogenesis (pgs. 1284-1285)6.Female Reproductive Physiology (Ch. 27)a.Oogenesis & the ovarian cycle (pgs. 1294-1300)
b.The uterine cycle (pgs. 1302-1304)Chapter 19: Cardiovascular Physiology (pgs. 846-875)1.Electrical Events at the Hearta.The Intrinsic Conduction System of the Heartb.Action Potentials in Cardiac Cellsc.The Electrocardiogram (ECG) & Common ECG Abnormalities2.The Cardiac Cycle: Analyses of the Wiggers diagram3.Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Ratea.Factors that Influence Stroke Volumeb.Factors that Influence Heart RateChapters 20 & 22: Control of Blood Flow & Pressure & Respiratory Physiology(pgs. 900-901; 904-905; 914-917; 1048-1050; 1063)1.Blood flow, pressure, & resistance (pgs. 900-901; 904-905)2.Regulatory mechanisms for blood pressure (pgs. 914-917)3.Pressure relationships in the thoracic cavity (pgs. 1048-1050)4.Gas exchange & transport in the respiratory system (pg. 1063)Chapter 23: Digestive Processes (pgs. 1126; 1127-1128; 1129-1137; also see Table 23.8)1.Overview of Digestive Processes: The Big Picture2.Composition of Bile & Pancreatic Juice3.Chemical Digestion & Absorption of Major Nutrientsa.Carbohydratesb.Proteinsc.Lipids
Chapter 17 1.Be able to list and describe the two cellular mechanisms of hormone action. 1.Second messenger systems (via plasma membrane receptors) – amino-acid based hormonesa.Aminesb.Peptidesc.ProteinsAll amino acid derived hormones bind to cell membrane receptors located on the extracellular surface ofthe cell membrane. They do not directly affect the transcription of target genes, but initiate a signaling cascade that is carried out by a molecule called a second messenger. In this case, the hormone is called a first messenger.cAMP – Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate. Amino acid hormones bind to membrane receptors, activate g protein. Activated g protein activates adenylyl cyclase. AC catalyses conversion of ATP to cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinases, which phosphorylate proteins in cytoplasm, activating them to alter cellactivity.2.Direct gene activation (via intracellular receptors) – Lipid hormones and thyroid hormonesa.Steroidsb.Thyroid hormonesLipid and thyroid hormones can diffuse through the plasma membrane, binds to intracellular receptor. Receptor/hormone complex enters nucleus. Binds to hormone response element. Binding initiates transcription of gene to mRNA. mRNA directs protein synthesis.2.Be able to list and describe the three types of endocrine gland stimuli and provide an example for each stimulus type.1.Humoral Stimulus – low levels of Ca2+ in capillary blood stimulates secretion of PTH by parathyroid glands2.Neural Stimulus – preganglionic sympathetic fibres stimulate adrenal medulla cells to secrete catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine)3.Hormonal Stimulus – hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands (adrenal cortex, thyroid, gonads) to secrete hormones
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