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PathologySinusitis:acute or chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal and para-nasalsinusesNasal septal deviation:can partly block the nasal passage (may lead to atrophic rhinitisand infection)Rhinitis:inflammation of the nasal mucous membraneRhinorrhea:discharge from the nasal mucous membraneCSF Rhinorrhea:due to the fracture of the cribriform plate and meningeal tearsNasal polyp:is a pinkish gray color focal thickening of the mucosa due to edemaA meningocele might be present in the nose, however, its removal leads to CSF leakage
Ear contains organs for hearing and balance3 parts: external ear, middle ear, internal ear
Pathology of the External EarLesions within the canal may cause nausea or vomitingSensory afferents of the canal carried by the vagus and glossopharyngeal nervescontain parasympathetic fibers to the upper GI tractSimilarly, removal of cerumen my cause a gag reflex or coughIn elderly patients, such stimulation may lead to cardiac arrest via the carotid reflexChronic infections like swimmer’s ear may lead to bony hyperplasia and anarrowing of the meatus
Normal Appearance of the Tympanic Membrane-anatomy/30700/
Myringotomyan incision made through the tympanic membrane to insert a tube fordrainage of secretions and pus in severe and/or chronic cases of otitismedia4261508_Myringotomy_and_Ventilation_Tube_Insertion_with_Endoscopic_or_Microscopic_Technique_in_Adults_A_Pilot_Study/figures?lo=1p
Middle Ear (Tympanic cavity)Borders:Lateral:tympanic membraneMedial:two openings leading to the internalearVestibular windowis oval shapeCochlear windowis round shapeRoof:Tegmental wall of petrous bone, betweencranial and tympanic cavitiesFloor:thin bony plate, beneath which passesthe jugular veinAnterior:bone, separating the cavity fromcarotid arteryPosterior/Mastoid wall:Tympanic or mastoidantrum
Middle Ear (Tympanic cavity):Auditory Ossicles:three bones, that withthe tympanic membrane, transmit the soundacross middle ear to the internal ear1.Malleus2.Incus3.Stapes
Middle EarMuscles of the Tympanic Cavity:Tensor tympani muscle:Insertion:handle of malleusInnervation:Trigeminal nerve (mandibularbranch)Function:tenses the tympanic membraneStapedius Muscle:Insertion:neck (head) of stapesInnervation:Facial nerve(CN VII)Function:Levers the foot plate of stapes out ofthe oval window and dampens the soundtransmissionFacial Nerve Paralysis:causes loss of function of stapedius muscleand loss of dampening sound stimuli, leadingto Hyperacusis (an increased sensitivity tosound)-technology-class.html

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Term
Spring
Professor
Harris
Tags
Facial nerve

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