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Difficult for drug to find virus without injuring normal cellsEach antiviral drug specific to one particular virusAntiviral agents decrease the reproduction of viruses inside the host cell but cannot destroy the virus. Effective only against actively repliacting viruses, not against those in the latent stage
Antiviral TherapyUse drugs with extreme caution with preexisting renal or hepatic diseaseJudicious use is warranted during pregnancyEmphasize compliance with antiviral therapySome drugs cause GI distress and should be taken with food
Herpes Simplex Virus- 1
Herpes Zoster Virus/Shingles
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)Herpes zoster or shingles is caused by varicella-zoster virus in adults.Appears years after the primary infection of varicella or chickenpox, which usually occurs in childhood.Affects one cranial nerve or one dermatome on one side of the body.Neuralgia or pain continues after the lesions disappear.Visual impairment has resulted
Reye’s SyndromeThe cause of Reye’s syndrome has not yet been fully determined, but it is linked to a viral infection, such as influenza, in young children that have been treated with aspirin (ASA).Pathologic changes occur in the brain and the liver.Cerebral edema develops leading to increased ICP.Progresses to acute renal failure.
HerpesvirusesCauses repeated blister-like lesions on the skin, genitals, and other mucosal surfacesAntiviral drugs can lower the frequency of acute herpes episodes and diminish the intensity of the acute disease
A patient has been diagnosed with genital herpes and has been started on oral acyclovir (Zovirax). What should be included in the teaching instructions for the patient? Select all that apply. A.Increase fluid intake up to 2 L per dayB.Report any dizziness, tremors or confusion to you HCPC.Decrease the amount of fluids taken so that the drug can be more concentrated to be more effectiveD.Take the drug only when having the most itching or pain form the outbreakE.Use barrier methods such as condoms for sexual activity
The patient with acute herpes zoster is prescribed oral acyclovir (Zovirax), an antiviral medication. Which statement by the patient indicates the patient needs more medication teaching?A.“I am so glad this medication will cure my shingles”B.“I will have to take the pill five times a day”C.“I should take this medication for 7-10 days”D.“If the shingles get near my eyes, I will call my HCP”
The use of aspirin in children is limited due to the possibility of:A.Munchausen’s syndromeB.Guillain-Barre syndromeC.Angelman’s syndromeD.Reye’s syndrome
Pathophysiology Of HIVCaused by an RNA virus or retrovirusReplication goes as follows:HIV GP 120 and GP41 to CD4 cell receptorViral core empties into cellReverse transcriptase copies RNA into double stranded DNAIntegration of viral DNA into host DNA w/aid of integraseUsing integrated DNA as blueprint, makes new viral proteinsTranslation of viral messenger RNA to create polyproteinProtease cleaves the strandAssembly and release of new virus