and rely on other team members for information, materials and resources needed to accomplish work for the team. The process of how the work gets done The relationship between one member’s work and another member’s work to produce group outcomes. Task - About the relationship between a group member’s individual contribution to the performance of the group o Additive Task – sum total task Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. For additive tasks, the potential performance of the group increases with group size. Eg. Fundraising – everyone’s contribution matters to total o Disjunctive – best contributor matters Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member. The potential performance of groups doing disjunctive tasks increases with group size. Eg. Trivia teams – if you have someone on your team who knows everything, it doesn’t matter who else is on the team. o Conjunctive – worst contributor matters Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. Both the potential and actual performance of conjunctive tasks would decrease as group size increases. Eg. Assembly line work teams – the slowest person slows the whole team down. o Compensatory – average contributor matters Tasks in which group performance is limited by the average performance of all group and size will vary as it depends on the composition, but in general past a certain point as the size goes up performance should regress to the mean. o Process Losses Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups Process losses are caused by events that occur within the group that make it difficult for the group to live up to its full potential. As groups performing tasks bigger, they tend to suffer from process losses Actual performance = potential performance – process losses Goal Outcome
Input-Process-Output Model Group Input : how does member diversity impact group processes and group outcomes? o Input: Individual-level factors: member attributes, etc. Group-level factors: group size, norms, etc. Environmental-level factors: tasks, org resources, etc. o Member Attributes Cognitive ability and Big-Five Personality: performance and group cohesion Member diversity: surface and deep diversity Bad: Longer group development process, More conflict and confusion, Miscommunication, Difficulty in reaching agreements Good: More creative and more open, Multiple perspectives, Increased flexibility, Better problem-solving skills Group Composition/Diversity: Homogeneous: Simple tasks, Sequential tasks, Tasks that require cooperation, Tasks that must be done quickly Heterogeneous: Complex tasks, Collective tasks, Tasks that requires creativity, Tasks that need not be done quickly Group process
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- Spring '19
- Decision Making, process theories