• shaman - a person regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of good and evil spirits, especially among some peoples of northern Asia and North America. Typically, such people enter a trance state during a ritual, and practice divination and healing. • chest-pounding duel • Garimpeiros • Indigenous - originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native. • Kayapo people are indigenous peoples in Brazil who inhabit a vast area spreading across the states of Pará and Mato Grosso, south of the Amazon Basin and along Rio Xingu and its tributaries This often gives them their nickname, the xingu tribe. • Altamira Conference - The Altamira Gathering was a five-day media conference organized by the Kayapo people in an effort to raise awareness of the ecological and political atrocities committed by the Brazilian government and by illegal gold mining also. Between February 19 and 24 in 1989 over 600 Amazonian Indians gathered at the port city of Altamira at the banks of the Xingu river .   The protest was organized by the Coordination of the Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon . Yanomamo Religion The Yanomamo people have a very interesting religion. They practice the religion of animeism, which means they believe the plants and animals around them have animal spirits. These spirits are called
xapiripe. In order to see them, one must use a hallucinogen called yopo. Yopo is taken by blowing through a tube into the nasal cavities from one person to another. When someone takes yopo they supposedly have a power that can manipulate the spirits in the animals and plants to go into their own body, giving them more spiritual power. However, they also believe that there is a god who blessed them with the forest, trees, and animals called Osama. They believe that animals were once humans a long time ago, but were made animals because of bad things they did. The Yanomamo people also believe that the universe consists of four parallel layers or levels. The top layer, duku ka misi, is believed to be empty, but at one time was inhabited by ancient beings that now have dropped down into lower levels. This layer doesn’t have an effect on the lives of the Yanomamo people. The second layer is calledhedu ka mis or the sky level. It is where the spirits of dead men and women reside. It is a lot like earth, except the men and women there are young and beautiful, the hunting is better and easier, and the food tastes better. Hei ka misi or earth is the next layer, and the last layer is the hei ta bebi or “underworld.” The Amahi-teri live in the underworld and bring misfourtune and harm on humans. In the Yanomamo culture, men can become shamans, which are the one who are called upon to heal the sick, help the someone in need, or to send demons, which he controls, to endanger enemies. They also are known to be able to cast spells on people using plants. To become a shaman, a man must go through very difficult training, including a fast from food and abstinence from sex.
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- Spring '16