LIST return list of file in current directory RETR filename retrieves (gets) file STOR filename stores (puts) file onto remote host sample return codes status code and phrase (as in HTTP) 331 Username OK, password required 125 data connection already open; transfer starting 425 Can’t open data connection 452 Error writing file
Application Layer 2-48 Chapter 2: outline 2.1 principles of network applications app architectures app requirements 2.2 Web and HTTP 2.3 FTP 2.4 electronic mail SMTP, POP3, IMAP 2.5 DNS 2.6 P2P applications 2.7 socket programming with UDP and TCP
Application Layer 2-49 Electronic mail Three major components: user agents mail servers simple mail transfer protocol: SMTP User Agent a.k.a. “mail reader” composing, editing, reading mail messages e.g., Outlook, Thunderbird, iPhone mail client outgoing, incoming messages stored on server user mailbox outgoing message queue mail server mail server mail server SMTP SMTP SMTP user agent user agent user agent user agent user agent user agent
Application Layer 2-50 Electronic mail: mail servers mail servers: mailbox contains incoming messages for user message queue of outgoing (to be sent) mail messages SMTP protocol between mail servers to send email messages client: sending mail server “server”: receiving mail server mail server mail server mail server SMTP SMTP SMTP user agent user agent user agent user agent user agent user agent
Application Layer 2-51 Electronic Mail: SMTP [RFC 2821] uses TCP to reliably transfer email message from client to server, port 25 direct transfer: sending server to receiving server three phases of transfer handshaking (greeting) transfer of messages closure command/response interaction (like HTTP, FTP ) commands: ASCII text response: status code and phrase messages must be in 7-bit ASCI
Application Layer 2-52 user agent Scenario: Alice sends message to Bob 1) Alice uses UA to compose message “to” [email protected] 2) Alice’s UA sends message to her mail server; message placed in message queue 3) client side of SMTP opens TCP connection with Bob’s mail server 4) SMTP client sends Alice’s message over the TCP connection 5) Bob’s mail server places the message in Bob’s mailbox 6) Bob invokes his user agent to read message mail server mail server 1 2 3 4 5 6 Alice’s mail server Bob’s mail server user agent
Application Layer 2-53 Sample SMTP interaction S: 220 hamburger.edu C: HELO crepes.fr S: 250 Hello crepes.fr, pleased to meet you C: MAIL FROM: <[email protected]> S: 250 [email protected] Sender ok C: RCPT TO: <[email protected]> S: 250 [email protected] ... Recipient ok C: DATA S: 354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself C: Do you like ketchup? C: How about pickles? C: . S: 250 Message accepted for delivery C: QUIT S: 221 hamburger.edu closing connection
Application Layer 2-54 Try SMTP interaction for yourself: telnet servername 25 see 220 reply from server enter HELO, MAIL FROM, RCPT TO, DATA, QUIT commands above lets you send email without using email client (reader)
Application Layer 2-55 SMTP: final words SMTP uses persistent connections
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- Domain Name System