ommendation admonition accusation complaint defense protest jus ti fi cation

Ommendation admonition accusation complaint defense

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ommendation, admonition, accusation, complaint, defense, protest, jus- ti fi cation, reproach, threat, invective, entreaty, etc. – suggests that they are closely related to speech-act categories.  Scripting social relations
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‘‘        ’’:    Teaching boys how to derive ‘‘living model[s]’’ for the letter through improvisation exercises in which they identify generic situations and match them with appropriate interactions styles, Erasmus o ff ers what Kenneth Burke calls ‘‘equipment for living.’’ ¹⁴ This method of develop- ing speech or writing repertoires for a wide variety of script situations replicates the socialization processes by which complex verbal compet- ences are acquired and by which the tacit knowledge that frames one’s social world is built up. When he imagines the elementary teacher objecting against the di culties of this manner of instruction, he re- minds him, fi rst, invoking the theatrical conception of life implicit in his pedagogy, that ‘‘this is the play he had undertaken to put on’’ (  ) and, second, that it can have enormous bene fi ts for the students by promo- ting distinguished performance in many di ff erent social arenas: ‘‘From these exercises they will go on to preach uently in churches, to guide the senate with wise eloquence, to serve with credit on missions of public importance, and lastly to be competent on any matter both in judgment and in speech’’ (  ). Erasmus’s recommendations strongly con fi rm the theatricality and self-consciousness of humanist identity construction, to which Stephen Greenblatt’s work has given vivid testimony. ¹⁵ In the vigor with which he promotes role-playing practices for the assimilation of speech genres, we can see how Erasmus seems to understand these interactive speech genres as the ideological building blocks of identity, with identity being conceived not only as the discursive construct Greenblatt understands it to be, but also the dialogic construct Bakhtin understands it to be, always situated in the encounter with ‘‘someone else’s word.’’ ¹⁶ There are startling contradictions between Erasmus’s practical pro- gram for instilling communicative competence and his idealistic vision of communicative exchange as speech shared ‘‘in common with others’’ (  ). ¹⁷ Erasmus suggests that when students ‘‘are more mature they must be guided gradually’’ from script situations from classical authors ‘‘to subjects closer to real life’’ (  ). But if a boy were to address another in the deferential accents with which an Elizabethan courtier might ad- dress the queen, Erasmus could be expected to expostulate, as he does in a related context: ‘‘If anyone does not see the absurdity of this language, he must be completely illiterate; if he hears it and does not repudiate it,
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