Shipping fuel emits large amounts co2 sulphur oxides

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million plastic bottles annually. Shipping fuel emits large amounts CO2, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides (NOx) but also particulate matter containing organic carbon, black carbon, polycyclic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. From 2020, IMO regulations will require ships to change from heavy sulphur fuel to more expensive low-sulphur alternatives with a maximum sulphur content of 0.5%, compared with the current 3.5%. Rather than purchasing cleaner fuel, many operators are opting to install exhaust cleaning systems, or ‘scrubbers’, which use seawater to ‘wash’ dirty fuel before sending the washwater back into the ocean. More expensive closed-loop systems contain the washwater and dispose of it safely on land. Around the time when the relaxation of the embargo between the US and Cuba was announced in 2015, Carnival Cruises launched its Fathom brand, serving both Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The Fathom ships pioneered a new trend, called “social impact travel”, meaning that during the trip, passengers can “come alongside” locals at their various destinations and can get involved in hands- on community schemes such as planting trees and clean drinking water projects. The “small-ship experience” transports 700 passengers on each trip, but hopes to “build a long-term partnership with local communities and partners, not just a one-time trip with a short-term spike of preparation”. 17
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As an alternative to the big, luxurious cruise experience, travellers can choose a smaller, more interactive type of trip. The Boat Company prides itself in its 35 year-long history of sustainable cruising to Alaska, for which it uses far smaller vessels than the traditional cruise ship for unobtrusive navigation in the sensitive Alaskan waters. Measuring around 150 feet in length and around 30 feet wide, the boats are staffed by knowledgeable crew members, who can educate the travellers on Alaska and the Tongass ecosystem. US line Disney Cruises ships has also donated more than 60,000 gallons of used cooking oil to Bahamas Waste Management, which turned it into biodiesel that fuels a fleet of vehicles in Nassau. Disney Cruises’ on-board laundry facilities use water that is generated from the air conditioning system, the equivalent of 280 tons of water a day. All materials from the ship, like aluminium and cardboard, are recycled, and reusable objects and materials are donated to needy communities in port communities. 18
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References: Benjamin Levin, (2012). CARNIVAL CORPORATION STRATEGY REPORT, GRIFFIN CONSULTING GROUP. Accessed on 16 th August, 2019. Bridge, S. (2017). Cruise chief's plea on Brexit queues . Pressreader.com . Retrieved 18th August 2019, from Carnival Corporation & plc (CCL) . (2016a). Carnival Strategic Report and IFRS Financial Statements Year Ended November 30, 2015.
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