Chapter 7 — Knowledge Linkages and Benefits 7-11 based on nanoscale compositions (e.g., U.S. #6,878,871 assigned to Nanosys, and U.S. #6,946,597 assigned to NanoSolar). These findings suggest that DOE research has had a broad impact on important developments in the solar energy industry beyond top U.S. PV producers or leading companies in solar energy patenting. Finally, some high-impact patents outside solar and PV technology are linked to the earlier DOE- attributed PV patents. Most of these patents describe semiconductor manufacturing techniques, notably deposition of thin films (e.g., U.S. #6,342,277 assigned to ASM International, U.S. #6,176,992 assigned to Nutool, and U.S. #5,000,113 assigned to Applied Materials). Some of these patents describe technologies unrelated to semiconductors, such as organic LEDs (U.S. #5,707,745 assigned to University of Princeton) and image sensors (U.S. #6,407,381 assigned to Amkor). However, the main focus of the highly cited non-solar energy patents that trace back to DOE is on semiconductor device fabrication. This finding reinforces the conclusion that the main impact of DOE solar PV research beyond solar energy technology has been on technology outcomes in the semiconductor industry. 7.5 Publication Analysis Publications present an alternative form of DOE-funded or co-funded PV knowledge output. A search of the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) database for all PV publications sponsored by DOE extending back to 1988 yielded a total of 924. 64 A year-by-year distribution of the output of DOE PV publications by the leading DOE publishers (i.e., NREL/SERI, SNL, SBNL, and LLNL) is shown in Figure 7-5. There are two notable peaks: the first in the early 1990s and the second after 2004. From the body of NREL/SERI publications, which represents the largest group of these DOE PV publications, random samples were drawn from technical reports (74% of the NREL/SERI publications) and conference papers (25%), the remainder comprising booklets, journal articles, theses, and miscellaneous. The random samples were used to analyze publication coauthoring and citing. 64 The search of DOE’s OSTI database was made for all fields containing “solar PV” or “solar photovoltaic” or “thin film” or “PVMaT.” The result is highly likely an undercount, because not all DOE laboratory publications appear to be entered into the OSTI database, and some PV publications may not have contained any of these keywords. The OSTI database was used because it is reportedly the best central source of DOE publication data across DOE units. PV publications of organizations outside DOE were not included unless they had been entered in the OSTI database as DOE sponsored. Thus, early JPL/NASA publications in photovoltaics without DOE publication notation are not included.
Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems 7-12 Figure 7-5. DOE PV Publications for Selected Organizations, by Year and by Organization, 1976–2009 Note: Data for 2009 are incomplete.
- Spring '18
- Professor Obura Oluoch
- Photovoltaics, Solar cell