Teacher training was staggered across classrooms was

This preview shows page 4 - 6 out of 11 pages.

Teacher training was staggered across classrooms, was con- ducted during planning time, and included the teacher and assigned teaching assistant(s). The primary researcher described and demonstrated how to apply CWS procedures. Next, the teachers and researcher reviewed daily schedules and discussed what rules (colors) were appropriate for what activities. Finally, the teacher and teaching assistants practiced using the CWS procedures in different scenarios while others (e.g., researchers, teaching assistants) played the role of students. Several key concepts were emphasized during the training (Skinner & Fudge, 2006 ), which had already been introduced during the initial workshop. Teachers were reminded to con- sistently use red when transitioning and to always provide 2- min and 30-s warnings before changing the traffic light to red. The researcher also indicated that red rules were the most difficult to follow; consequently, time on red to should be kept to a minimum (e.g., after moving to red, quickly introduce the next activity and move the wheel to yellow or green). The researcher emphasized that yellow rules are often used for teaching and learning time: when students attend to teacher instruction, complete individual assignments, write or read, and raise their hands to ask or answer questions. They were reminded that green rules were designed to set behavior ex- pectations for free time or group activities. Teachers were reminded that the CWS is designed to en- hance rule following, not improve their ability to detect and punish rule breaking (Fudge et al., 2008 ). Thus, teachers were encouraged to frequently praise rule following with verbal praise and tangible rewards; when students were not following rules, teachers were encouraged to gently prompt rule follow- ing (e.g., remind students of the rules for yellow, or point to the traffic light). Teachers were told that time on red should never be used for punishment, but time on green could be used as a group reward. Finally, the teachers were reminded that although the CWS is a group intervention, individual behavior plans should always be followed when necessary. Teacher mastery of the training was completed when the teachers and assistants could accurately identify all components of the CWS procedure, answer scenario questions posed by the researchers, and accurately role-play using the CWS in two classroom situations. During the first 45 min of the following day, the researcher and teachers introduced the CWS to the students. A social Table 1 CWS Rules for each classroom Classroom Red Rules Yellow Rules Green Rules Classroom A Eyes on teacher In seat No talking Inside voices Hands and feet to self Eyes on teacher Follow directions Hands and feet to self Use inside/quiet voices Follow directions Classrooms B & C Eyes on teacher In seat No talking Raise your hand and wait to speak Hands and feet to self Eyes on teacher Follow directions Hands and feet to self Use inside/quiet voices Follow directions 146 Behav Analysis Practice (2019) 12:143 153
story (see Appendix ), supplemented with colored photographs

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture