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Glycoproteins spikes envelope proteins and

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glycoproteins (spikes)Envelope proteins and glycoproteins often play role in host recognitionClassification of VirusesInternational Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses determines virus classificationViruses classified by nucleic acid, presence of envelop, shape, and sizeRelationship among viruses not well understoodNo kingdoms, divisions, or classes have been definedViral ReplicationDependent on hosts' organelles and enzymes to produce new virionsLyticreplicationViral replication usually results in death and lysis of host cellFive stages of lytic replication cycleAttachment
EntrySynthesisAssemblyReleaseLysogenyModified replication cycleInfected host cells grow and reproduce normally for generations before they lyseTemperatephagesProphages– inactive phagesLysogenic conversionResults when phages carry genes that alter phenotypeof a bacteriumReplication of Animal VirusesSame basic replication pathway as bacteriophagesDifferences result fromPresence of envelopearound some virusesEukaryoticnature of animal cellsLack of cell wallin animal cellsAttachment of animal virusesChemical attraction between viral protein and cell receptorAnimal viruses do not have tails or tail fibersHave glycoprotein spikes or other attachmentmolecules that mediate attachmentEntry and uncoating of animal virusesAt least three different mechanisms by which animal viruses enter a cellDirect penetrationMembrane fusionEndocytosisViruses that enter cell with capsid intact are uncoatedSynthesis of DNA viruses of animalsEach type of animal virus requires different strategy, depending on its nucleicacidDNA viruses often enter the nucleus
RNA viruses often replicate in the cytoplamsMust considerHow mRNAis synthesizedWhat serves as template for nucleic acid replicationdsDNAvirusesSimilar to replication of cellular DNAViral genome replicated in the nucleusViral proteins are made in the cytoplasmSome exceptionsPoxvirus replication occurs in the cytoplasmHepatitis B viruses replicate DNA from an RNA intermediaryssDNAvirusesCells do not use ssDNA

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