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13.“Keeping an Eye on the Media” discusses whether we get the news that we should. What is the basic conclusion the article draws? Give an example. What is Project Censored?14.In relation to the social organization of work, compare professions and occupations.Answer: Professions—are high-status, knowledge-based occupations that have five major482
Chapter 1characteristics: 1. Abstract, specialized knowledge—professionals have abstract, specialized knowledge of their field based on formal education and interaction with colleagues. Education provides the credentials, skills, and training that allow professionalsto have job opportunities and assume positions of authority within organizations. 2. Autonomy—professionals are autonomous in that they can rely on their own judgment in selecting the relevant knowledge or the appropriate technique for dealing with a problem. 3. Self-regulation—professionals are theoretically self-regulating. All professionals have licensing, accreditation, and regulatory associations that set professional standards and that require members to adhere to a code of ethics as a form of public accountability. 4. Authority—professionals expect compliance with their directionsand advice. Their authority is based on mastery of the body of specialized knowledge and on their profession’s autonomy. 5. Altruism—professionals have concern for others, not just their own self-interest. Certain professions are undergoing a process of deprofessionalization in which some of the characteristics of a profession are eliminated. Occupations such as pharmacist have already been deskilled. Occupations are categoriesof jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites. Historically, occupations were classified as blue-collar workers—who were primarily factory, and craft workers who did manual labor; and white-collar workers—who were office workers and professionals. Sociologists establish broad occupational categories by distinguishing between employment in the primary labor market and in the secondary labor market. The primary labor market—consists of high-paying jobs with good benefits that have some degree of security and the possibility of future advancement. By contrast, the secondary labor